Nelson Mandela and Gandhian Principles

Nelson Mandela was one of the prime advocates of Gandhian principles. One of Nelson Mandela’s famous quotes about Gandhi include, “You gave us a lawyer, we gave you a Mahatma”. This is in connection to Gandhi’s life in South Africa, before he returned to India and joined the Indian Freedom Struggle.


Nelson Mandela followed the Gandhian ahimsa principle in South Africa, to quell Apartheid.
Apartheid means Apartness in the Afrikaans language.

Mandela showed in us practice how, Satyagrah way of struggle is valid, in 1990 also, in the Modern world and not relevant to 1940s and to India alone. Through his example he displayed the applicability of Satyagraha in different parts of the world, in modern times, under different oppressive regimes.

He spent 27 years in jail, but did not express rancor against the white masters.  This great quality of Ahimsa he had imbibed from Gandhi, and was of the idea “We are not against the British, but only colonialism.” An echo of what our father of the nation stood for!

He became the founding character of the Rainbow nation, the father of South Africa.

India was one of the first countries he visited, after being president of South Africa.

He was awarded the Bharat Ratna by the government of India, for his Gandhian struggle. One among three non-Indians to be honoured thus, the other two being Khan Abdul Ghafar Khan who is also famous as Frontier Gandhi, and Mother Theresa.

A symbol of global Peace & advocate of Human Rights, one of the greatest men of the century.


World Emoji Day

We all are familiar with the Emojis, the smileys of varied expressions that we exchange over the digital platform. These Emojis help us convey our emotions and is a popular form of communication. Emoji is all about speaking of emotion.

The word Emoji is borrowed from the Japanese, wherein E stands for an image and Moji for a character. Emojis are images that depict a character. They convey an idea or an emotion as an ideogram, and exist over various genres including facial expressions, common objects, places, weather and animals.

While Emoji is a modern term, these form of expressions existed over many centuries and millennia.

Five Modes of Written Communication

There are five main modes of written communication that had developed over the millennia.

  1. Ideographic
  2. Pictographic
  3. Syllabic
  4. Alphabetic
  5. Hieroglyphs

An ideograph is a symbol that represents an idea or a concept, independent of language and specific words.


Pictograph is an ideograph that conveys its meaning through its physical resemblance to the physical object.


Hieroglyphs are a combination of alphabets, syllables and images, with many distinct characters forming a script, of communication.


Syllabic form of communication consists of specific syllables conveying a meaning.


Alphabetic form of communication, consists of specific alphabets, through which words and sentences are formed, giving form to a language through which one communicates.

Emojis and Communication in Ancient India

It is also interesting to known that emojis were also used in ancient India.

Harappa and Mohenjodaro Script

The ancient Indian civilizations of Harappa and Mohenjodaro had used ideograms. Thus this way of expression with ideograms was practiced by Indians 5000 years back itself. This method of communication is now known as Rebus.

Meluhha / Mlechha hieroglyphs

Meluhha is the Sumerian name of a prominent trading partner of Sumer. The historians most commonly associate them with the Sindhu Sarasvati Civilization. In Samskrt and the scripts of this civilization, they were known as Mlechha, dating around 3000 BCE. Mlechha hieroglyphs document ancient trade on Tin Road from Malhar, Uttar Pradesh, India to Haifa, an ancient port of Israel. The script transcribes Proto-Indian speech of Mlechha language glosses. Rebus cipher of Mlechha provide plaintext readings of hieroglyphs and prove that cipher text rebus renderings detail traded resources and processes of ancient times, mostly stone, mineral, metal and alloyed artifacts as catalogs in Mlechha language.

Dr. S Kalyanaraman has done pioneering work on this, and has documented the same in his book, Indus Script.

Emoji 1

Dr. S. Kalayanaraman

Emoji 2

Epigraphia Indus Script


This is what the great poet Kalidasa in his work Raghuvamsa speaks about how communication should be. In this work, there is an invocation addressed to Parvati Parameshwara, where he asks them for blessing so that he can communicate what he wants to.

Emoji 3

The person who wants to communicate has a three step process,

  1. Think
  2. Mean
  3. Speak


The person who receives the message has also a three step process

  1. Listen
  2. Understand
  3. Assimilate

Emoji 4

So what the great poet Kalidasa is asking is, to give him felicity to communicate and reach his message to the receiver of communication at all three levels.

What we call modern understanding has been understood and sought as a blessing to communicate.


This is the same thing that the Tamil poet, Kamban who wrote Ramayana, popularly known as Kambaramayanam.

Emoji 6


Today, in the smartphone world, we are reapplying the same method of communication and giving it a new name, a more current name and calling it Emoji. This form of communication has come a full circle in 5000 years.

World Emoji Day

World Emoji Day is celebrated every year on July 17th, with Emoji events and programs. On this Emoji day let us know that this form of communication has existed across times and across places, and popularize it with ever new Emoji across the digital platform.

World Snake Day


Revered and Feared

Snakes are both feared and revered. While the venom of a snake can take away one’s life, venom is also collected to counter poison in treatments.


Snake venom being extracted

Snake venom being extracted

Snakes are diverse, found across the world, except in Antarctica. There are around 3000 species of snakes in the world, living in diverse ecosystems like deserts, mountains, forests, rivers, lakes and oceans.

However, it is to be noted that only about 24% of world’s snakes are poisonous. Moreover, maximum snake bites have happened only when humans stepped on these creatures.

Snakes are ecological predators that keep the rodent population in check.

A day for snakes

World Snake Day is an occasion to study and protect these creatures, considered dangerous, but nevertheless admired. On this day, many snake conservationist hope to create awareness among people and dispel their fears and misunderstanding about this marvellous reptile. Many programs, including seminars, talks and plays are held for the same.


Snake, a popular concept

A Snake is a popular concept across all ancient civilizations. The Mediterranean civilizations, the Indians, the Cambodians and the Mayans revere the concept of a snake.

In Mediterranean

In the Mediterranean coastal plains, a Phoenician deity called Eshmum, the God of Medicine has serpent for his symbol.


The symbol of professional medicine


God Eshmum holding a stick with coiled snake

In Egypt

In the Egyptian civilization snake was attributed with life giving powers, particularly due to its nature of shedding skin and thereby exhibiting a “New Body” continually.

In India

In India, snakes are adored along with many Divinities. Lord Vishnu’s couch is a snake. Lord Shiva wears snake as an ornament. Lord Ganesha has a snake for the sacred thread.

Anantha, Infinity

Narayana, the primordial divinity, who lies in the cosmic water in a quiescent state, is always depicted in a reclining form on the bed of a coiled snake called Adi Sesha in literature, sculpture and all other art forms.

This multihooded snake represents Infinity in the ancient Indian thought and perhaps goes to form the basis for the symbol  for infinity and the root for the word “infinite” too.


Anantha, Infinity

Anantha denotes the infinite number of cycles of Creation, Dissolution and Recreation of the Universe.

More on this in our book and Film, Creation – Srishti Vignana.


Vasuki, Alertness

Shiva wears a snake around his neck as an ornament, which is known as Shankarabaram, and which symbolizes alertness.


 Lord Shiva wearing snake as garland

In Carnatic music, there is Ragam called Shakamabarnam. Like the way snake slithers and moves, the Raga intertwines.

Intertwined Snakes in Villages

The fusion of two giving rise to life is reflected in the basic building block of every life form, namely the DNA.

The double helical, intertwined structure of the DNA reflects this aspect of the separate but inseparable components of life. Shiva – Shakthi as Ardha Nari represent the source of life, Shiva being the potential for manifestation for life with Shakthi being the trigger and energy behind the creation of life.

Many would have noticed small stone idols of double helical intertwined snake under trees in temples and villages in India, which represent Shiva and Shakthi. There is an age old custom in India where people pray to this idol of a double helical snake in order to beget a child.


                                DNA                       Praying to double helical Naga

More on this in our book and film, Understanding Shiva.


This double helical intertwined snake represents the Indian view and understanding of Shiva and Shakthi and their roles in creation, procreation and re-creation.

Naga Panchami

Nag Panchami is a festival celebrated in the month of Aashada or Shravan as per the Indian calendar, dedicated to snakes. This festival is also known as Garuda Panchami, Garuda being an eagle.


Eagle and Snake, Arch Enemies

Both snake and eagle are arch enemies. How come there is a festival on the same day for these 2 arch rivals?

 More on this in our article on Naga Panchami:

In Inca Civilization

In the ancient American Inca civilization too, they worshipped Naga and Garuda.

Carlos A.Irigoyen Forno, of Peru is a descendent of the Incas of South America.

He too has researched on this subject and his statement based on his research reads as,

The Incas, who are part of the tribal population of Peru, share many things in common with Hindus; they have the same belief in Sun and Moon worship, besides worshipping Garuda and Snake”.

More on this in our book – 2012 – The Real Story.

Kaliya, Pollution

The story of Kaliya Nardhan, where Krishna subdues and dances on the snake Kaliya is one of the popular stories around Krishna’s childhood.

Krishna and His friends were grazing their cows when one of the cows went to the riverside to drink water from the river Yamuna. Soon it dropped dead from water poisoning.

Krishna’s uncle Kamsa had been sending his emissaries on and off to kill Krishna and they too had tried various methods to kill Him, but in vain. So, many thought that this must be another ploy of Kamsa but soon realized that the culprit behind the poisoning of the Yamuna was Kaliya, the dreaded Naga, snake.

The friendly waters of the Yamuna soon became green and nobody could go near the Yamuna any longer. Krishna seized of this, entered the water to seek out and rout out Kaliya.

The people of Braj were shocked and anxious at Krishna’s dare. Krishna’s father Nandagopa and mother Yashoda came running in panic, worried about what would happen to their dear son. The whole village assembled on the banks of the river and everyone started pleading with Krishna to return to the shore.

Krishna however waded further and sought out Kaliya. A fierce struggle ensued between Kaliya and Krishna. At one point, both Krishna and Kaliya disappeared beneath the waters. People on the bank prayed with bated breath.

Krishna suddenly emerged from the waters, dancing on the hood of the fierce Kaliya, holding Kaliya’s tail in His hand.

Seeing her husband in this plight, Kaliya’s wife emerged from the waters and pleaded with Krishna, not to harm Kaliya but to let them off, so that they could go away somewhere far off and not disturb the people of Braj anymore.

Krishna let Kaliya and his family off and peace returned to Braj. The waters of the Yamuna sparkled once again. Krishna and His friends returned to their favourite pastime of grazing and playing by the Yamuna.

This incident of Krishna subduing Kaliya has come down as Kalinga Nardhana, one of the popular tales around Krishna’s childhood.

It has found a place in everyone’s heart and in almost all homes in India through millennia in some form of art or the other, including song and dance.

This legend of Kaliya has to be understood and internalized beyond the miracle and beauty of Krishna’s dance on the hood of a venomous snake.


Krishna dancing on Kaliya

Even today, there are people who continue to poison our waters with modern day pollutants and garbage. They are the “Kaliya” of today, who need to be identified and suitable steps taken to rescue our water bodies from the inconsiderate acts of such Kaliya.


Krishna is also slays another snake, Aghasura, during His childhood. Aghasura, associated with the form of a huge snake, was a friend of Bakasura and Putana and was dispatched by Kamsa to poison and kill Krishna when He was a child. Krishna in turn slays this Asura snake.


Krishna and Aghasura, Image Courtesy – Iskcon

More on this in our book, Historical Krishna.

Samudra Manthan

Another legend relating to a snake ingrained in the cultural fabric of this land is the Samudra Manthan. When Deva and Asura decided to churn the Ocean, they used a snake called Vasuki as rope to move the Mandara peak, to secure Amrita.


Samudra Manthan

In Cambodia

This Samudra Manthan legend has found a place even in other countries. The capital city of the then Cambodian Khemer kingdom was designed and built on the concept of Samudra Manthan.


The huge snake idol in Cambodia

In Thailand

In the new airport named Suvarana Bhumi in Thailand, Bangkok, the central theme is of a gigantic Samudra Manthan.


Samudra Manthan in Suvarna Bhumi Airport

In Buddhism

The snake is also revered in Buddhism. At Bodha Gaya, Buddha is shown as sitting on the coils of a snake, Mucalinda. The serpent is supposed to have protected Buddha from the elements of Nature.


Buddha statue at Bodha Gaya

In Christianity

In Christianity however, snake is considered evil. A snake is said to have tempted Eve to eat the forbidden apple.


A snake tempting Eve

In Islam

Similarly, in Islam, a snake symbolizes struggle with misfortune and remorse.


Like this, the snakes symbolize positive factors like fertility, protection, healing, transformation, alertness, infinity. They also represent negative factors like pollutants, temptation, misfortune and other qualities, based on one’s belief. These contrary values goes to show the multidimensionality of snakes viewed from the radars of different civilizations and faith.

Cannot ignore snakes

It can be seen that, snakes are not just physically everywhere, but seem to pervade almost every thought, land, civilization and religion.

We just cannot ignore snakes and more so on this Snake Day.

India – Croatia – Sarasvati Connect


Croatian Roots in Sarasvati

The origins of the Croatians can be found to be intertwined with the river Sarasvati that used to flow through India.

The land of Croatia has been called Hrvatska and its language Hrvati for long, after the Sarasvati River of India, in whose memory and honour, the present day Helmand in Afghanistan was earlier called Harauvati / Harahvaiti by them as they migrated from their original homeland in Sindu – Sarasvati Valley, through Afghan and Persia (Iran), to found their home in Croatia.


Helmand River, Afghanistan

One branch of people migrated from the Sindhu Sarasvati River Valley to the river Harauvati in Afghanistan, from where they went to Persia, and from there migrated via Black Sea and finally settled down in a land which they came to call as Hrvatska. They later came to be know Croat, which got anglicised as Croatia.

The Croatians trace their ancient lineage from their present land to Black Sea, and from there further South East to Old Persia.

When we link the name Hrvatska, we see a clear link to the river Hravati that runs in Afghanistan, which in turn is the name given to the Sarasvati River. This establishes the Indo-Croatia Connect from both sides, i.e. from Indic research of the migrations that happened, with the desication of the Sarasvati river, and from the Croatian side, their original home land being in the eastern world.

Just as Indians are fighting myths about their identity, another group of people surrounded by myths about their identity are the Croatians.

Croatia came under Yugoslavia when it was formed in 1918. Croatia was forced to become a totally Slavic nation in many a sense such as language, culture, customs and more. Much of its antiquity was suppressed by the ruling political regime then. However, what little survived, of the over 200 year old research done by those who wanted to keep Croatian memory alive, despite the Yugoslavic suppression, shows a different story.

It traces how Croatians have their roots in Iran. With more and more of these works finding their way upto the public, it is not only an Iranian root that is emerging but an Indian connect as well.

The description of ancient Croats has now been traced across times through Persia.


Summarized from “The Old Iranian Origin of Croats”, Paper by Late Prof. Lovric in the Proceedings of Symposium, Zagreb, June 4, 1998

Of significant interest to India, is the paper by Mato Marcinko in the 1998 Zagreb Symposium, which discusses the origin and gradual evolution of the Croats as they migrated from their “Indian Homeland” to Persia, to Caucasus and finally upto the Adriatic.

Mato further traces this evolution from India in the following linguistic and geographical sequence:

  • From Vedic Sarasvati to
  • Harahvaiti and Harauvati in ancient Iran and Afghanistan, to
  • Hurrwuhe and Hurravat in Armenia and Kurdistan, to
  • Horouathos in Azov and Black Sea, to
  • Medieval harvati and Horvati, to
  • Hrvati in Croatia today.

This shows how linguistically, Sa changed to Ha through Persia and further Ha to Ca, a guttural Ca sound with air expelled as in Ha, closer to the Adriatic and Greece.

Evidence of India being the original homeland of the Croats also lies in the name Harauvati they gave for the river flowing through Afghanistan. It flows even today as Helmand. It is obvious that the Croats carried memories of life along Sarasvati as they moved.

Infact, this river Sarasvati, Harauvati and the land around it is called Arachosia by the Greek, showing a morphing of Ha to Ca as well as the dropping of the Ha in the beginning, just as they did to “Hind” to make it “Ind”.

Following many searches and researches, the recent administrations in Croatia have accepted and made official that the origin of the Croats or Hrvats as they call themselves, lies in the Indo-Iranian belt. So much so that, their internet domain has always been .hr just like India’s is .in.

Researchers such as Dr.Samar Abbas, who have been studying Iranian history, clearly show a philological, cultural and traditional connect between Croats, Serbs and the Jats of India.

For others it may be Croatia, but for the Croats, it is Hravtska, Hrvati from Harauvati aka Sarasvati.


The other, black and white, clear connect of the Croats with Indo-Iran comes from a highly unexpected evidence.

Croatian Coat of Armour

The Croats show their memories of their Indo-Iranian past in the chessboard like coat of arms in the flag of Croatia. Chess is after all a game that went from India to Persia. Who knows, perhaps it was these Croats or Hrvats who took it with them as they moved from their Indian homeland and later from their Iranian homeland.


 Croatian Coat of Arms, older and not later than 1494,  from the remains of Church of St. Lucija, Jurandvor near Baska, island of Krk

Source –


Regni Sigillum, State Stamp of the Kingdom of Croatia and Dalmatia from 1527 with the display of the Croatian coat of arms, stamp of the Cetinski Parliament Source –


Flag of Croatia today

Many Croatian historians trace this flag to their ancestry from the counsellor of the Sassanid king Khosrau I called Bozorgmehr. Bozorgmehr, Buzurgmihr or Dadimihr as he was variously called to denote his elderliness, was indeed mentioned in Persian literature and paintings as the one who exchanged Indian Chaturanga and Persian Nard between India and Iran.


A Painting from Bayasanghori Shahnameh showing Buzurgmihrplaying chess with IndiansSource – Housed in Golestan Palace, Tehran,Iran, Photo

– Unesco Photo Gallery


Buzurgmihr or Dadmihr demonstrating Nard to an Indian King

The roots and migration of the Croats, confirms the roots and migration of Chess.

Researchers such as Dr. Samar Abbas, who have been studying Iranian history, clearly show a philological, cultural, traditional as well as genetic connect between Croats, Serbs and the Jats of India.

More on the Indo-Croatian Connect in our book, Autobiography Of India – Brand Bharat – Roots In India.

Image result for autobiography of indian root in india


Jagannath Rath Yatra

Jagannath-Lord of the Universe

The word “Jagat” stands for the world, the Universe. It means that which is always moving and not stationary”. Nath means “Lord”. Jagannath is the Lord of the Cosmos.


Indians knew the cosmos is moving

The meaning of the word Jagat referring to the cosmos indicates that the people of India knew that the cosmos was always in motion.

Juggernaut from Jagannath

Infact, the English word “Juggernaut” meaning “that which is huge and is rolling” comes from the word “Jagannath”.

Jagannath Temple

One of the ancient and important cities of the east coast of India is Puri, which is in the present day state of Orissa. This Puri is famous for the temple of Jagannath, another name for Krishna.


The Physical Remains of Krishna

The idol in this temple is carved out of Neem wood from a particular forest and once every 12 years, is replaced through a strict, well defined process, Naba Kalebara, that has come down as a tradition.

Legends talk of people who came east from Dwaraka, carrying with them, mortal remains of Krishna, pinda, which have been kept in a hollow cavity in the idol since the times of inception of this temple to this day.

Neither has this been kept a secret nor has it been hidden. It is well known through the land as retold by the Sthala Purana, local legend of the temple. These remains were not tucked away, way back in time and forgotten. Around every 12 years, on the assigned day, this bundle, Brahmapotli, has been removed and transferred to a fresh idol under due rituals.


Lord Krishna

The bundle with the remains is normally physically handled by the most aged priest of the temple, who is blindfolded – a rare honour indeed to be that senior most priest on that occasion. Having handled these remains, the aged priest looks forward to early Moksha, deliverance, to attain Goloka, the abode of Krishna.

Being so venerated and done under such stringent, time honoured rituals, these remains, remain beyond the purview of scientific scrutiny.

The knowledge of its existence has been revived through these rituals every 12 years, in every generation and the remains of Krishna, have been venerated every day by millions of devotees who have thronged this temple.

This is the beauty in this temple – it is not only the beauty of the idol but also the beauty of how these remains and the memories they invoke have remained with us through this tradition across millennia.

The Memories of Krishna

Puri is thus an ancient city dedicated to Krishna and those who settled here brought with them the legends of Krishna from the times of His childhood at Braj to the times of Dwaraka.

This is evident from the daily rites in the temple which give prominence to the childhood days of Krishna when he used to steal milk, butter, cream and curds. The most famous offering in their rites is Kheer, a milk and rice based sweet pudding. People of Orissa, even to this day, fondly call Krishna as “Khiri Chora”, meaning “one who steals Kheer”.

More on Jagannath Puri in our book, ‘Historical Krishna’.


Jagannath Rath yatra

The famed Rath Yatra, which dates back to the period of the Purana, is held every year at this temple.

A Painting of Jagannath Rath Yatra from 1818

In Purana

There are vivid descriptions of this festival in Brahma Purana, Padma Purana and Skanda Purana. Kapila Samhita also refers to Rath Yatra.


Huge Chariots, Large Crowds

The idols of Jagannath and His siblings, brother Balabhadra and sister Subhadra are taken out on this day in a procession on huge chariots, rath, the likes of which cannot be matched in size, the crowds they draw and the continuity in tradition.



Chhera Pahara

A significant ritual associated with the Ratha-Yatra is the “Chhera Pahara,” when the king symbolically sweeps the path of the Rath. This symbolizes that right from the king to the commoner, everyone is responsible for maintaining cleanliness around the place where the yatra is organized.

This practice is followed even today and the present king Raja Gajapati Divyasingh Dev also follows the tradition.


A festival of unity

Rath Yatra, Rathotsav, is a common annual festival celebrated in all temples, all across India and the world. It is a festival to unite people from all walks of life to come together to pull the Rath. A truly peoples’ festival.

A Global Festival

Lord Jagannath true to His name not only moves the cosmos, but moves the people to celebrate His Rath Yatra, not just in Puri but also in other parts of the country and the world. The Rath Yatra festival is celebrated in all major Indian cities. It is also observed in countries outside India.

The juggernaut is indeed rolls all over Jagat, the world on Jagannath Rath Yatra.


Nikola Tesla

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Nikola Tesla – Swami Vivekananda – Veda Connect

Nikola Tesla (10 July 1856 – 7 January 1943), born in Serbia, was the genius who lit the world, whose discoveries in the field of alternating polyphase current electricity, propelled the United States of America and the rest of the world too, into the Modern Industrial Era.

In Magnetic Science, the Magnetic Flux Density unit of measure is called Tesla.


Nikola Tesla in turn had taken inspiration from Swami Vivekananda and the Veda for his world acclaimed work.

Nikola Tesla Meets Swami Vivekananda

Nikola Tesla had met Swami Vivekananda in 1895. The meeting was arranged by French actress Sarah Bernhardt.

Sarah Bernhardt, playing the part of ‘Iziel’ in a play of the same name, which was a French version about the life of Buddha, saw Swami Vivekananda in the audience. Impressed by the Swami, she organized a meeting for him, which was attended by Nikola Tesla too.


Nikola Tesla Drawn Towards Veda

Swami Vivekananda’s effect on Nikola Tesla was so great that he became a vegetarian and began using Samskrt words and concepts in his work.

Nikola Tesla was very much impressed by the Samkhya cosmogony and the theory of cycles given in the Vedic text. He was particularly struck by the resemblance between the Samkhya theory of matter and energy and that of modern physics.

On 13th February 1896, Swami Vivekananda had written, in a letter to a friend,


Nikola Tesla’s View of Prana and Akasa

While working on Force and Matter, Nikola Tesla studied the concept of Prana and Akasha which gave him a new perspective to the Universe. He started viewing the world in terms of frequencies and energy, which resulted in him establishing his concepts on energy.

Nikola Tesla - birth

In an article, “Man’s Greatest Achievement”, published in 1907, Nikola Tesla wrote about Prana and Akasa.


Swami Vivekananda too was eager to see Nikola Tesla’s theory at work. He writes in one of his letters,


A Poser On the Unity OF PRANA AND AKASA

Swami Vivekananda had written,

“There is the unity of force, Prana; there is the unity of matter, called Akasha. Is there any unity to be found among them again? Can they be melded into one? Our modern science is mute here; it has not yet found its way out.” 

The mathematical proof of this principle came about ten years later when Albert Einstein published his paper on relativity and showed how matter and energy are inter-convertible.

Nikola Tesla and Vedic Thought

Nikola Tesla’s use of Vedic terminology provides a key, to understanding his view of electromagnetism and the nature of the universe.

Nikola Tesla is looked up to as one of the greatest scientist of all times. But, his connect with Indian knowledge is indeed thought provoking.


World Kiss Day

World Kiss Day, observed on July 6th every year, aims to make us appreciate a kiss in its own right.

World over, every land blames Europe for introducing kissing to their civilization. The truth is quite different.

Origin From India

Hypothesis of Vaughn Bryant

Vaughn Bryant, Anthropologist at Texas A&M University, traces the origin of kiss to India to around 1500 BCE. He says it travelled from India to Greece with Alexander. The hypothesis of Vaughn Bryant is that “Kiss spread to West with Alexander the Great, when he visited India in 326 BCE”.


Not just hard steel, but soft kiss

It seems that Alexander not only took hard steel from India but also the soft kisses.


In Veda

In the Vedic scriptures that were last compiled 3100 BCE, that is, 5100 years back, describes lovers kissing – “setting mouth to mouth”.


In Mahabharata too, the events that happened over 5100 years back, there is a mention of an affectionate mouth to mouth kiss.


This shows that kiss has been practised and expressed in Indian literature 5100 years back itself in India.

There are over 30 varieties of kisses explained in different text of India. 8 of them are of the passionate variety which is detailed in Kama Sutra.

8 Types of Kiss in Kama Sutra

The Indian literature Kama Sutra, one of the early texts of the world mentions 8 types of passionate kisses for different occasions.


Kiss, Etymology

The English word Kiss has its roots in the Samskrt word Busa, Bosa. In Latin, it came to be called Basium. There is also another word for kiss in Samskrt, called Chumba. Which is why magnet, the kissing stone is called Chumbaka in Samskrt.


The old English word for Kiss was Cyssan, which could have come from the Germanic word Kussan, which in turn, could have come from the Greek word, Kynein.

Jesus identified through Kiss

When Judas identified Jesus, after the Last Supper, it was through a kiss.


Kiss: A Single Act Many Messages

There are many types of kiss.

  • When parents kiss their children, it means something.
  • When parents kiss each other, it has a different meaning.
  • A gambler kisses the dice for luck.
  • Jews kiss the Torah.
  • Catholics kiss of Peace.


Interesting Fact

According to scientists, about 80 million bacteria are transferred from one mouth to another during a passionate kiss.

Types of Kisses

Martin Von Kemp

Martn Von Kemp who lived between 1642 and 1683, wrote a 1040 page encyclopaedia on kissing – “Opes Polly Historicum….de Oculis” has listed 20 different varieties of kiss, some of them being,

  • Kiss bestowed by superiors on inferiors
  • Hypocritical Kiss
German Language

German language has 30 different types of kiss. One variety is Nachkussen – “Making up for kisses that have been omitted”.

In New Zealand

In New Zealand, the Maori, the local tribe’s greeting each other was by rubbing the noses.


Kiss not a World Affair

Charles Darwin

The next work traceable on Kiss is by Charles Darwin. In his voyages, he observed many things and recorded them. Apart from his famous book, “The Origin of Species”, where he speaks about ‘Evolution’, he also wrote another book called, “The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals”, wherein he writes ‘kissing is replaced, in various parts of the world, by the rubbing of noses’.


Greetings in other part
  • Eskimo Kiss- Inuit – Smelling each other’s cheek


  • Africa Pacific and Americas culture did not know about mouth kissing till their contact with European explorers
  • Lapse of Finland – Both sexes bathed together in nudity, but kissing was not practised
Not widely known

A study on kissing habits show that among the traditional tribes of the world, less than half of them are aware of kissing.

Observation In China

The Workers Daily in Beijing, China wrote an article about ‘Kiss’ in 1990.


“The invasive Europeans brought the kissing custom to China, but it is regarded as a vulgar practice which is all too suggestive of cannibalism.”

Brand from India

We see that kiss is not widespread in world cultures, but some race invented it and spread worldover. The earliest literary reference is in the Veda. Later in Kama Sutra and in many temple sculptures in India.

Kiss is a kissing brand of India.