Makara Sankranthi is a festival season in India. It is celebrated with different names across India and Asia.
This ebook, goes into the significance of this festival with diverse names.
Karva Chauth is the day when married women fast from sunrise to sunset for the protection and longevity of their husbands.
The festival is observed in the states of Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Gujarat and wherever people from these states have gone on to reside.
Women praying for their husbands
Karva means a ‘pot’ and Chauth means ‘fourth’ in Samskrt – an obvious reference to the ‘fourth day after Full Moon’. There is a legend associated with why this day got the name Karva Chauth.
A woman called Karva was deeply in love with her husband. One day while bathing in a river, a crocodile caught hold of her husband. She prayed to Yama, the divinity of death, to release her husband from imminent death. Yama respecting her love and steadfastness, her Vrta, bestowed him back to her. Such stories are replete in every culture, in every land, through the times. Commemorating these stories, women observe Karva Chauth, with steadfastness through fasting Vrta, for the health, Ayush, life of their loved ones, starting from their husband. But why in the month of Karthika?
A period of harvest and military campaignA Jawan, soldier and a Kisan, farmer form the backbone of any civilization. Karva Chauth falls around the period when the wheat is sown. Wheat is stored in pots, Karva. Karva Chauth is the day when women pray for a good harvest for their husbands, the Kisans, farmers, so that the Karvas are always full. In ancient days, the period around Karva Chauth was also the time when soldiers ventured out on military campaigns. The women used to conduct prayers on Karva Chauth then, for the protection of their husbands during a battle.
War WindowIn ancient times, there was a clear war window. During monsoon it is not possible to go to battle. Soon after the monsoons was the apt time to go to battle. The Rama – Ravana War was fought after the south west monsoon.
The Ramayana battle was fought post south west monsoonThe famous Mahabharata war at Kurukshetra was also fought after the monsoons, before winter.
Mahabharata War was fought post monsoonsIndia’s East Pakistan war of 1971, for liberation of Bangladesh, was also fought after the monsoons.
The Bangladesh Liberation War which also took place after the monsoonsLike this, through the ages, post monsoon was considered an apt window to go to war.
Why only women observed Karva Chauth?From those days, to the present days, it is mainly men who have been going to war and women have stayed back to look after the families, their farms, their other household activities. So, it is natural, that the women prayed for the safe return of their men folk, victorious in war. It was given this, that Karva Chauth festival was observed by the women in this window.
For the sake of battle going menIn ancient days, it was not just the soldiers, the kshatriya who went to war, but also those belonging to other classes of the society. For example, the agriculturists and medics also went to battle to support their warriors. This day was mainly observed for those husband folks who took part in a battle. It is this day that has permeated down to all classes of society as the Karva Chauth festival today.
SIMILAR festival, ACROSS LAND, THROUGH THE YEARIf we see, there are other similar observances in other parts of the land through the year, observed by women for the wellbeing of their entire family.
Women DeifiedIn Pre-modern India, women observing Karwa Chauth were deified and worshipped. Paintings depict woman on fast as embodiment of Goddess. Also, in this land, women have been known for their valour and bravery across the times. Women have also held and fought with swords.
Selflessness of womenSuch observances in present times show the selflessness of women, their caring nature and the affection they have for their husbands, their family and society.
Such timeless festivals showcase the innate steadfast nature of women and their concern for their family and near and dear. They bring out the noble qualities of women wherever they are, whatever language they may speak, whatever they may eat, whatever they may wear and however they may look!
Kargil Vijay Divas is observed, the day when Indian soldiers overcame the Pakistani insurgents and successfully regained control over the high posts in Kargil and Drass sector, earlier lost to Pakistani intruders.
Kargil on Map
In honour of Kargil heroes
527 Indian soldiers were martyred, and around 1088 soldiers were wounded in this Kargil War. Kargil Vijay Divas was instituted to honour these Kargil war heroes. Every year, citizens of the nation, pay homage to the Kargil heroes at Amar Jawan Jyoti at Indian Gate, Delhi and at Kargil hills, in Kashmir valley.
Kargil Hills Memorial
Many programmes are held all over India to remember the sacrifices made by the Indian Army then. Shaurya, valour awards were given to these soldiers and officers.
Amar Jawan Jyoti
Pakistani soldiers indisguise
In the year 1999, Pakistani Armed Forces were training and sending soldiers, disguised as jihadi militants, into the Indian side of the Line of Control (LOC).
To delink Ladakh & Kashmir
This infiltration which they called “Operation Badr” was intended to break the link between Ladakh and Kashmir by forcing the Indian soldiers to retreat from the Siachen Glacier. The goal was to force a negotiated solution from India.
Indian Soldiers caught unawares
Initially, the Indian soldiers were not aware of the nature of this infiltration. The Indian forces thought that this infiltration was by jihadis and resolved to eliminate them.
In the next few days, another infiltration was observed along another part of LOC. The nature of this infiltration was very much different from the previous one which made the Indian Army to seriously study these infiltrations.
Discovering the nature of attack
On further analysis, the Indian forces realized that the enemy’s plan was much bigger and that Pakistani soldiers in disguise, had infact captured around 200 kms of Indian Territory.
The Indian Government soon launched the Operation Vijay with 2 lakh Indian soldiers. The Battle which began on May 27th, lasted for 62 days and ended on July 26th.
Indian Soldiers attacking the intruders
Indian Soldiers in action during Kargil
India stood steadfast
India stood steadfast all through the war, whereas the Pakistani Prime Minister went to US on July 4th to meet the then President Clinton and then to China, to seek help. Incidentally, July 4th was American Independence Day.
Whereas, India did not go soliciting for help, to maintain its territorial integrity.
Nawaz Sharif with Bill Clinton seeking help
The Indian soldiers were successful in pushing back the Pakistani intruders beyond the Line of Control and regaining the lost territory. It is to be noted that it was India’s conscious decision not to escalate the war beyond the Kargil and Drass sectors.
Indian soldiers hoisting Indian flag after regaining Kargil
The victory lifted the morale of every Indian. The sentiment in India was so high, that, a number of films were made on this war. LOC Kargil was one of the first films. Shot in Ladakh, this film gives a detailed account of Operation Vijay. The Film Dhoop was released in 2003 with the Kargil war as a backdrop. Another film Lakshya was released, a fictional story based on the Kargil war.
Not to forget
This year, the 18th anniversary of the Kargil victory is being observed. The war might be over, but we should not forget those who sacrificed their lives in the battle. It is not enough we if just recall the sacrifices of those who gave up their ‘today’ for our ‘tomorrow’. It is time we ensure that, they get their injury benefits without any delay, which has sadly been delayed for the last many years on petty grounds.
Make it a Policy
It should also be made a policy that the Governor of Jammu and Kashmir, along with ministers visit the Kargil Hills Memorial, every year, to pay homage to our Kargil martyrs who then saved Kashmir for us by giving up their lives.
Nag Panchami / Garuda Panchami is celebrated in the month of Aashada or Shravan as per the Indian calendar.
Festival for Arch Rivals
Panchami is the fifth phase of the moon. Nag is snake and Garuda is eagle. Both are arch enemies. How come there is a festival on the same day for these 2 arch rivals?
Eagle and Snake, Arch Enemies
Let us fist understand this time of the year first. It is the month of Shravan. This means the Full Moon in this month occurs near the Shravan Star. This star is identified with Altair of Aquila constellation. This constellation is likened to an eagle in the sky.
Aquila, Shravan constellation
There are many Indian legends associated with why this constellation has been called Shravan.
Coming to the point of Garuda Panchami, this Aquila, eagle, Garuda constellation is prominent in this Shravan month as the full moon occurs here. Hence the Panchami of this month being referred to as Garuda Panchami.
Now, look at this from the point of view of the sun. When it is Full Moon, the sun is directly opposite in the sky on the other side of the earth. i.e this month, the sun will be near the Aslesha star in the sky. Aslesha star is likened to the snake, the constellation Hydra in the sky.
Hydra, Aslesha Constellatioin
Hence with reference to the sun, this Panchami is a Nag Panchami as the sun is close to Hydra, the snake.
Rivals in the Sky
The Aslesha star and the Shravan star are almost diagonally opposite in the sky being 13 stars away from each other in the lineup of 27 Nakshatra in the sky as per Indian Astronomy.
We see the snake, Nag and the eagle, Garuda to be rivals – not only on ground but also in the sky.
Is it not interesting that such a beautiful fact of astronomy has been brought out through this conjoint festival of Nag Panchami / Garuda Panchami?
It reminds us that Hydra and Aquila are opposite to each other in the sky.
It reminds us that during this time of the year, the sun is near Hydra (Aslesha) and Full Moon occurs near Aquila (Shravan).
Bringing 2 side together
These festivals are like two sides of a coin. Actually they are like two sides of the sky. Each opposite to the other.
This is perhaps why it got translated into the sentiment of women praying to the Nag, snake or tying Raksha Bandhan to pray for the safety and wellbeing of their brothers.
Is this also why, we also celebrate Friendship day to express love for our friends around this period?
It is perhaps a way of making the snake and the eagle come to respect each other.
The Nag (Hydra) and the Garuda (Aquila) indeed rule the day and the night sky respectively, throughout this month.
Bal Gangadhar Tilak was an Indian Freedom fighter who played a pivotal role in the freedom struggle.
Bal Gangadhar Tilak
“Lal Pal Bal”
The Trio of “Lal Pal Bal” were forerunners of the freedom struggle much before the times of Mahatma Gandhi. Lal was Lala Lajpat Rai from Punjab, Bal was Bala Gangadhar Tilak from Marartha, and Pal was Bipin Chandra Pal from Bengal. They came from different corners of India and asked for Swaraj in united voice.
Lal Bal Pal
Tilak’s Birth and Education
Tilak was born on 23rd July 1856 at Ratnagiri village of Maharashtra. His father was a Samskrt teacher.
Birth Place of Tilak
A first cover of Tilak’s Birth Centenary issued in 1956
Tilak was among the first generation of Indians who secured a graduation.
In 1871, Tilak married Satyabhamabhai. He began teaching mathematics at a private school.
According to Tilak, spirituality was not divorced from worldly life. He got his inspiration from the Bhagavad Gita, which he believed taught selfless service to humanity.
He said, “I regard India as my Motherland and my Goddess, the people in India my kith and kin, and loyal and steadfast work for their political and social emancipation my highest religion and duty.”
Bal Gangadhar Tilak Was imprisoned in Mandalay Jail, Burma From 1908 to 1914. During his imprisonment in Mandalay, he wrote the book titled Gita Rahasya.
Later he went on to write a commentary on the work called the Bhagavad Gita Rahasya.
Deccan Education Society
Making social service the goal of his life, Tilak founded the ‘Deccan Education Society’ along with his college friends in Pune, with the aim of improving the quality of education in India.
Deccan Education Society, Pune
Tilak joined the Indian National Congress in 1890 and became a part of the Freedom struggle. His main aim was to unite the people against British. He worked with Mohammed Ali Jinnah in the Home Rule Movement.
He was soon conferred the title of ‘Lokamanya’, Loka meaning, ‘world’ and Manya, ‘acceptance’, as he was accepted by all sections of the society as their leader.
Father of the Indian unrest movement
He was called the ‘Father of Indian unrest movement’ by the British for his successful attempts in uprising the masses towards freedom.
‘Bal Pal Lal’
Along with Bipin Chandra Pal and Lala Lajpat Rai, two other freedom fighters, Bal Gangadhar Tilak became a part of the trio who were collectively nicknamed, ‘Bal Pal Lal.’
Celebrating Ganesha Utsav
In 1894, Tilak called for celebrating the domestic Ganesha festival as public event. His intention again was to unite people through the fervour of the festival.
Tilak started Ganesha Utsav
‘Swaraj is my birth right’
In 1897, Tilak raised the clarion call,
“Swaraj is my birth right and I shall have it.”
This slogan is ingrained in the Indian consciousness even to this day. A stamp has been released by the Government to this effect.
Tilak’s call intensified the yearning for Swaraj from the British, in every common man’s mind as well as collectively in the entire population of the land. It became a turning point of our Freedom movement.
In 1905, following the partition of Bengal, He encouraged the Swadeshi and Boycott movements.
As a journalist
At this moment, he also began his journalistic career by founding the newspapers Kesari and Maratha. Tilak opposed the many policies of British by publishing strong worded articles in his papers. Kesari and Maratha became the voice of the freedom fighters.
Tilak was sent to jail for carrying out anti-British activities. Here, he spent his time in writing the commentary on Bhagavad Gita. He also authored a book called “Orion, or the antiquity of the Vedas”, which is a research on the antiquities of the Veda.
In this book, which he wrote in his prison cell, he writes about the knowledge in the Veda about the galaxy, the galactic arm, the position of our sun in the galactic arm, the constellation of Mrigashirsha in this arm. Through these he tries to fix probable dates when this knowledge could have been composed on earth in the form of Veda.
All in all, Tilak paved the way for Mahatma Gandhi, as the momentum of his activities helped Gandhi to start his non-cooperation movement. In this regard, Gandhi considered Tilak his Guru.
Tilak passed away on August 1st, 1920 in Mumbai. A true devotee of Bharath in true sense of the word.
Last words of Lokmanya Tilak on verdict of Jury in 1908, is on plaque outside Central court of Bombay High Court
Funeral procession of Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Pi Day is celebrated all over the world on March 14th.
The story of Pi (Π) is interesting and long. It is intertwined with the development of thinking of mankind not only in India but the world over.
Since Pi has a connection with circles, we shall look at the manner in which the circular shape was understood and used by the ancients in India.
The most valuable ratio
A circle is one of the perfect and most naturally occurring shapes in the world. It is a figure where every point along the line called the circle or its circumference, is equi-distant from a point called the centre of the circle, lying within the area bound by this line.
This distance was named as TriJya by the ancients, after Jya, meaning the chord of the bow. The ancients had noticed a relation between this distance Trijya and the length of the line that made up the circle. Modern Geometry calls this TriJya, the Radius and twice Trijya as Diameter.
They had found that if the length of the circular line (the length called circumference) was a little over 3 times the diameter, then the line would go round the centre such that at every point, it would always be equidistant from the centre point.
The ratio of the length of the circular line (circumference) to the width of the circle (diameter) had to be 3.x for the shape to become a circle.
A Simple Thread of Reason
It is simple:
Take a rope and a stick such that the rope has to go around the stick.
If the length of the rope is just 1 x stick length, then it would only be able to align along the stick itself.
If the length of the rope is such that it is 2 x stick length, then it would align along the stick twice. But, it would lie along the length itself and not be able to uniformly maintain a distance from the centre of the stick.
If the rope length is 4 times the stick length, then it would align along the stick 4 times. No different from 2 x stick length.
This meant that the length of the rope must be between 2 and 4 times stick length, i.e. 3, for it to be able to go around the stick such that it will stay exactly at the same distance from the centre of the stick at all times.
This ratio 3, came to be referred to as paridhi-vyasa sambandhana in Indian thought.
Pi – the Paridhi-Vyasa Sambandhana
Paridhi means the circumference. It denotes that, which separates space into “this, flat, receptacle, area (dhi)” and the space “beyond this area (pari)”. It is the line around this area.
Vyasa means the diameter. Vyasa is that which disjoins, severs, distributes, rearranges. The diameter severs or rearranges the circle into 2 halves or semicircles.
This is why Vyasa is also the term for a compiler, since, as an arranger he reorganizes and arranges, distributes data suitably while giving it a coherent shape.
Sambandhana denotes relationship. Paridhi-Vyasa Sambandhana is the relationship between the diameter and the circumference of a circle which in present times is known to every school child as the constant Π approximated to 3.14, a value, very close to the value 3 for the Paridhi-Vyasa Sambandhana.
Pi – The Ratio
But why did the ancients want to be so precise about their circles?
What did they use circles for?
Circular shapes for Usage
Ancient Indians, who were Nature worshippers, are referred to as the Vedic civilization, for their understanding and close association with Nature.
One of their ways of veneration was through Vedic rituals centred around use of fire, hymns and altars. The shapes of altars played a very important role in the lives of these people known as Ritwik.
The Ritwik stayed in synergy with Rta, the order in the cosmos, Nature, using
- natural geometric shapes, patterns (altars),
- patterns of incantation and rhythm (hymns, chants),
- repetitive and ordered acts of offering (rites).
The Ritwik’s life was centred around Rta – order, pattern, repetition, rhythm, cycle.
Such use of altars, hymns, chants, offerings, rites came to collectively be called a Ritual.
Rituals, sharing etymological root with Ritwik, were for the Ritwik, the source of energy for mind, body and environs.
Such profound rituals of the Ritwik, came to be called erroneously and limitedly as “sacrifices” by some colonial commentators, due to the tangible and visible aspects of offerings.
It is hard to say when this Vedic period started or when the Veda were composed. But what one can confirm with a fair amount of certainty, is that the Veda and ancillary texts were last recompiled in 3100 BCE, as against composed for the very first time. This means that, this window of 3100 BCE must have been a prominent era of the Vedic period. Ritual practices would have been taken up vigorously and procedures for setting up and using altars would have been adhered to, then.
The Sulva Sutra, the oldest work on geometry gives procedures for construction of geometrical altars (vedi) using rope (rajju) and gnomon (sanku).
The compendium of these Sutra is dated to have been worked upon until 800 BCE though one cannot isolate and say which ones and when.
Companions to these Sutra were the Brahmana texts which outlined the process of Vedic rituals. Popular among these, the Shatapatha Brahmana also contains many mathematical instructions to build venues, altars and conduct rituals.
A circular Vedic Fire Altar excavated at Harappa dating to before 2500 BCE
When colonial historians had dated the Veda to around the 1st Millennium BCE, the Sulva Sutra and other texts too came to be bound by this upper limit.
But with the last recompilation of the Veda being traceable to 3100 BCE, the Sulva Sutra and other Vedic texts such as the Shatapatha Brahmana can also be dated to atleast 3100 BCE if not earlier.
Vedic Altars – Only One of the Needs
But Vedic altars were only one of the needs for circles. It was a need of only a particular set of people who were entrusted with safeguarding the psychological and physiological wellbeing of the society by keeping them in tune with Nature as well as sustaining Nature itself through daily rituals.
There were others who were in charge of the development of the township and in development of trade. They needed more precise circles as even a small error could make their living very shaky.
Circular Structures that Towered
Circular tower at Mehergarh dating to before 5000 BCE, implying existence of such mathematical and architectural skills atleast from 6000 BCE.
The use of such precise mathematics and geometry can be seen in one of the ancient structures of the world – a circular tower which is not only a perfect circle but also stands perfectly straight even after 8000 years.
A perfect circular tower has been excavated at the ancient town of Mehergarh in the Sindhu Sarasvati belt, dating back to beyond 5000 BCE. Such a perfect structure which has not only stood tall but has also withstood the test of time, indicates the perfection in ratios and proportions applied during design as well as construction.
What is making us go around in circles today is the question, “why did they need to build such tall circular towers?”?
Were they water wells? Were they storage wells? Were they observation towers? Were they astronomical tools? Were they signalling beacons?
Or were they so advanced that just like us today, they chose to build circular columns and towers out of aesthetics?
Whatever be the motive, precise mathematics to plan and build circular structures was the need of those who practiced professions such as engineering and architecture.
Circular sky to map
Living Under The Skies
The ancients did not stop with Nature worship alone. They were also in tune with Nature, to the extent that the motions of objects in the sky determined how they would lead their lives. For, it is these motions that gave rise to day, night, seasons and years.
All the shapes, right from that of the earth, the moon, the sun are all circular.
All the motions, right from the rotation of the earth, to the moon around the earth, to the earth around the sun, to the planets around the sun, are all based on circular orbits.
The need to calculate these motions in “space” and predict the arrival of “time” meant the calculation of distances and speed of these astronomical objects along circular paths.
Thus precise mathematics to draw up circular paths and precisely calculate these motions was the need of those who practiced professions such as agriculture.
Circular seas to navigate
Even though India is classified as an agricultural civilization, trade has been one of India’s vibrant professions right from the times the Veda were composed, atleast more than 8000 years ago, since Ramayana is dateable to 7100 years ago.
Many sloka in the Veda mention about trade and there are also slokas that speak about navigation across oceans for this trade.
India has thus been navigating the seas from over 8000 to 10000 years ago.
Travelling Around the Globe
Ancient Indians had travelled the world over for trade as well as making contact with people and lands as far away as Central and South Americas. There are many evidences to show an Indo-American connect right from over 5000 years ago.
They had travelled eastwards to arrive at lands to their west for, they knew that the Earth was round and waters encircled the earth. So sailing the seas, one could go from one end of the earth to the other – i.e. go around the earth.
Plotting Maps and Distances
This need for navigation, gave rise to precise mapping of stars in the spherical sky with locations and distances across flat seas.
These needs translated into the development of many branches of study, differentiated today as Geometry, Trigonometry, Calculus and so on, all of which were lapped up by the entire world community as these needs are common to all mankind.
The ancient Indians were also adept in dividing the earth into zones of time using meridians to locate and navigate to remote places.
Thus precise mathematics to work with a spherical globe and circular lines called meridians was the need of those who practiced professions such as trade and navigation.
The formulation of Pi
It would therefore not be amiss to say that the ancients who drew these perfect circular shapes and built structures were in the know of the ratio of the length of the periphery of a circle to its width.
To be able to work with chords, arc and sines of a circular path in the sky and map it to distances on earth, the ancient Indians would have had to first know the ratio of length between the circumference and the diameter.
So, when was Pi born?
Birth of Pi
The concept of Pi in India is pegged to the Sulva Sutra, which go back to the date of the accompanying Brahmana, which again go back as far as the Veda atleast 8000 years ago. These Sulva Sutra are dated to have been last edited in 800 BCE.
The precisely dateable, physical proof for the usage of the concept of Pi though lies in Egyptian papyrus scrolls, dating to around 2000 BCE.
The list of mathematicians who have subsequently worked on this ratio Pi and have achieved converging results is quite long. It is almost as along as the number of digits after decimal for Pi.
Birth of the notion of Pi
The list of people who have worked on the value of Pi and those who will continue to do so in future may also be endless just as the infinite series of Pi. In this never ending evolution of the mathematical expression of Pi, what can perhaps be fixed though, is its birth.
This birth can be traced to the version of the Sulva Sutra going way back to the time of the composition of the Veda, based on the dexterity of the ancient Vedic Indians.
- who used to construct perfect geometrical shapes for their Vedic altars and potters’ wheel
- who could precisely predict circular motions of stars and planets in the sky
- who could precisely navigate to locations based on mapping the stars in the spherical sky to the flat seas and land.
All of which, point to their mastery over circles and spheres and the mathematics concerning them.
With the Vedic texts dateable to having been last recompiled in 3100 BCE, the birth of the concept of Pi and a value close to 3 for this ratio can be attributed to times going beyond 2000 BCE into the mists of time and mysteries of ancient Indians.
Birth of the name Pi
The name Pi and symbol Π for this ratio though, can be traced to William Jones, the British mathematician in 1707 CE who identified this name and symbol for this ratio.
Incidentally, William Jones, the mathematician, was the father of Sir.William Jones, the Philologist and Orientalist who became a Jurist in India during the British rule, founded the Asiatic Society of Bengal to popularize Oriental studies and was one of the first to popularize the idea of Indo-European group of languages, which culminated later in the incorrect and ill- famed Aryan Theory of migration into India.
William Jones, the Mathematician (The Father) Source – Painting by Willaim Hogarth, National Portrait Gallery
Sir. William Jones, the Philologist (The Son)
Source – Pictures in the Hall of University, Oxford
This name Pi and the Greek letter Π as symbol for it, was later popularized by the Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler, in 1737.
A portrait by Emanuel Handmann in 1753
Pi and the Art of Navigation
William Jones, the father, was a Welsh born mathematician who between 1695 and 1702, was commissioned to teach Maths onboard naval ships. While aboard ships in the sea, William Jones learnt the finer aspects of navigation and produced the work “A New Compendium of the Whole Art of Navigation” in 1702.
William Jones was also a close friend of Sir. Isaac Newton and Sir. Edmund Halley. While Newton is credited with the discovery of Calculus, Halley is credited with predicting the path and appearance of the comet which came to be named after him as Halley’s comet.
Navigation and Indian Maths
We see that the development of sciences in Europe, especially Maths, Astronomy and their primary use for Navigation, took place over the foundation provided by Indian mathematics which had reached Europe through Arabs and later through Jesuits.
It would therefore not be out of place here to conclude that even though William Jones is credited with having named this ratio of circumference to diameter as Pi, his study and findings could have been based on Indian works available and followed by Europe then.
Pi from Pie?
The name Pi and the alphabet symbol, is said to come from the Greek word “Perimetros” for “perimeter” and hence the attribution of the Greek alphabet ‘Pi’ and its symbol Π.
Another way to ascribe Pi to this ratio could have been the fact that this ratio is used along with arc, angles and chords of circles which divide the circle into small “pies”.
Also the more prevalent use of Pi today as an infinite series comes from the notion of adding up the infinite and minute arcs of a quadrant and comparing this integrated value with the radius or Trijya of a circle. A method that William Jones as a mathematician of the 1700s and a friend of Newton, would have been fairly conversant with.
For, this method of arriving at the value of Pi, as worked out by Madhava from Kerala, had reached Europe by then via the Jesuits.
Journey of Pi
Pi, as a concept thus was revealed and came into relevance for mankind from many millennia ago.
Pi, as a ratio was known to the Indian civilization as evidenced by the Circular towers, Vedic altars and procedures to create them from 6000 BCE and before.
Pi, as a mathematical concept travelled from India along with other aspects of Mathematics including Jya (Sine) in Trigonometry and Calculus needed for navigation along the many millennia since.
Pi, as a number has gained various levels of accuracy with further independent work by various civilizations and their mathematicians especially from the first millennium of the Common Era (CE).
Pi, as an infinite series of expression using Calculus, as in use in the modern world today, was deciphered by the Kerala school of Mathematics in 1350 CE.
Pi, as a name and symbol was coined by William Jones in 1707 CE.
Pi, as a constant was popularized in modern maths today by Leonhard Euler in 1737 CE.
Pi, as Π found its way into basic school books, all over the world in 1900s.
Pi – a perimeter around the world
In Pi, Π, we thus see a blend of,
- Ancient’s understanding
- Nature’s marvel
- Beauty of symmetry
- Precision in Maths
- Meticulousness of Mathematicians
- Common Need of Mankind
- Solutions from Maths
- Integrational capability of Maths
- Binding power of flowing knowledge.
The world has been literally and metaphorically bound in a circle of knowledge defined by the Perimeter called Pi, Π.
And, India’s slice, rather pie, of contribution to Pi and to the world of Maths is worthy enough to be branded and celebrated.
More on Pi in our book, Brand Bharat – Vol-2 – Roots In India.
National Flag Adoption Day is celebrated every year on 22nd July, the day when the flag in its present form was official accepted by the Constituent Assembly in 1947, as the Indian National Flag.
Indian National Flag
The word flag in English means something that flaps in air. This word has its origin from the German word, Flagge, and dates back to the days of Tutons.
Some Vexillologists are of the opinion that China is originally the birthplace of the flags, and the first mention of it is dated to 1122 BCE.
India has had a long history of flags. In ancient India, each kingdom had its own flag, own identity.
In Samskrt, a flag is known as Dvaja.
In the Ramayana, we have Surya Vamsa Dvaja, of Rama’s dynasty, dating to 5100 BCE.
In the Ayodhya Khanda – verse-74-36 and Kishkinda Khanda – 16-37, there is a mention of flag being hoisted to celebrate the New Year on Ashwin Purnima. In the Ayodhya Khanda – verse – 77 – there is another mention of Flags being defaced due to heat and showers.
Surya Vamsa Dvaja
The chariots of kings, princes and soldiers hosted their own individual flags. Infact during the war, the flag of the chariot helped the rival army identify a particular soldier.
Arjuna’s flag had the insignia of Hanuman, a Vanara, through which the other soldiers identified His chariot during battles.
Arjuna’s Dvaja with the image of Hanuman
Similarly Bheeshma’s flag had the insignia of a Tala, Palm tree and 5 stars.
Dronacharya’s flag had the insignia of Vedika – an altar, Deer Skin, Kamandalam – a Pitcher and a bow.
Duryodhana had a snake in his Dvaja, a Sarpa Dvaja.
For each nation, flag represents its unique identity, the country’s pride.
In this land, each Divinity also has its own flag.
The Dvaja of Indra, the King of Deva is mentioned in the Rig Veda, which dates to earlier than 3100 BCE.
A Sculpture of Indra which shows his flag
In ancient times, Indra Dvaja Mahotsava was celebrated for 4 days after every successful military campaign.
Of the 8 modes of recitation, Ashta Vikriti that evolved in this land, Dvaja Pata is one.
Part of Temple Architecture
Dvaja, a flag has been a part of the temple architecture from time immemorial. Dvaja stamba can be found in all temples.
Flag represents Pride and Identity
For each nation, flag represents its unique identity, the country’s pride.
The Manusmrithi 9.285 says,
“Damage to dvaja is sacrilegious and the offender has to repair it or pay damages of 500 pana.”
In pre colonial era
There were a varieties of flags associated with different empires in the pre colonial era.
In colonial era
In the 18th and 19th century, India was under the British rule. Every Indian state had its own flags as it has been having from time immemorial.
Flag of British India
Star of India
After the First War of Independence in 1857, the idea to have a common flag for India was mooted by the British. The first group of flags based in British symbols was called the star of India.
Evolution of flag
In the 20th century, as the freedom struggle gained momentum, many flags were created by Indian freedom fighters with symbols unique to Indian identity.
Vande Mataram flag
The partition of Bengal in 1905, gave birth to a new flag, called the Vande Mataram flag, aimed at uniting people of different caste, creed and community.
Vande Mataram flag, 1906
In 1907, Madam Bhikaji Cama tore her sari and unfurled it as a flag at Stuttgart Congress, Germany. The design and colour of her saree was adopted in a modified Vande Mataram flag, with a few changes.
Madam Bhikaji Cama
Modified Vande Mataram flag, 1907
Mahatma Gandhi’s Flag
In the year 1921, Gandhiji asked a person from Andhra Pradesh by name Pingali Venkayya, to design the flag.
Venkayya designed this flag of 3 colours, white on the top, green in the center and red at the bottom, with a Charka, a spinning wheel in the middle. It was popularly known as the Charka Flag.
This Flag was first hoisted on December 31, 1929, at the Lahore Congress Session on the banks of River Ravi, in Punjab, by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. It was under this flag that Gandhiji declared our goal of freedom movement as “Purna Swaraj”, complete independence.
It was this flag, designed by Pingali Venkayya from Andhra, which became the basis for the Indian National Flag later. The Charka changed into Dharma Chakra – wheel of Dharma and the red colour at the bottom became saffron at the top, with white in the middle and green at the bottom.
Pingali Venkayya with Mahatma Gandhi
In 1931, The Indian National Congress adopted an official flag called the Swaraj flag which was used until 1947. The flag had three colours representing all the three main communities with a Charka in the middle. The aim was to unite all communities.
Flag of Indian National Congress
Flag of Azad Hind
The Azad Hind movement under Subhas Chandra Bose which represented the provincial government of a free India had their own flag from 1942 to 1945.
Azad Hind Flag Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose
From Charka to Chakra
Suraiya Badruddin Tayabji
Suraiya Badruddin Tayabji from Hyderabad, was an Indian Civil Service officer in the Prime Minister office in 1947.
Suraiya Badruddin Tayabji
She designed the present Indian National Flag with Chakra, from the Charka flag that Pingala Venkayya had earlier designed.
The Charka was replaced by Ashoka Chakra in the centre.
The Indian national flag
Before Independence, a committee was formed under Dr. Rajendra Prasad to decide upon independent India’s National Flag.
This Chakra Flag was approved, accepted and adopted in its present form during a meeting of the Constituent Assembly held on 22 July 1947, and it became the official flag of the Dominion of India on 15th August 1947.
Dr. Rajendra Prasad
Indian National Congress Flag
Tryst with Destiny
Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru gave a famous speech, Tryst with Destiny, about the Indian flag, on India’s First Independence Day – 15th August 1947.
“This flag that I have the honour to present you is a flag of freedom, not only for ourselves, but for all those who see it.”
“The flag represents a message of freedom and comradeship, a message that India wants to be friends with every country of the world”.
“This flag is of Indian independence.”
“Behold it is born. It is already sanctioned by the blood of martyred youths.
I call upon you gentle man, to raise and salute this flag of Indian independence.
In the name of this flag, I appeal to all lovers of freedom, all over the world,
to cooperate with this flag in freeing 1/5 of the human race”.
Nehru giving the historic speech
The 1st Indian National Flag hoisted on 15th August, 1947 at Fort St George. Chennai
Accepted by all
The flag satisfied the four major communities, namely Hindu, Christian, Muslim and Buddhist, as each of the three colours, saffron, white, green and the symbol Ashoka chakra, represented the respective communities.
Colours and Chakra Represent our ethos
This colour has denoted Sacrifice. It denotes the sacrificing mentality of service, Seva, which was exemplified by the Sadhu and Rishi of this land, who had sacrificed personal comfort for the larger benefit of the world and its inhabitants. This saffron colour has been associated with these Sadhu and Rishi from timeless eons. Over time, it therefore has also come to be associated with Spirituality and the Hindu religion.
This colour in the flag stands for Peace, the principle which India has stood by from the time that the Veda were first composed, for the Veda conclude with the Shanti Mantra – Om Shanti, Shanti, Shanti – Let Peace Prevail.
This band stands for the fertility and prosperity of the land, which India had in abundance.
The blue chakra, called the Dharma Chakra in the centre, denotes the qualities that govern the people and society of this land.
The tricolor flag of India thus conveys an image of a flourishing, prosperous, peace loving, friendly nation with people who abide by the principle of Dharma and are ever ready to be of help to all.
These are the basic reasons for the choice of these colours in the Flag.
Apart from this, these colours have inspired various thinkers and poets to ascribe further meanings for the tricolor, from the point of view of the needs of the times.
Colours of Indian Tricolur flag seen displayed in Nature
Source – A picture taken from Fort Ajinkyatara, Dist- Satara, Maharashtra – popular in social media
Alexander Kadakin was the Russian ambassador to India, between 1999 and 2004, and between 2009 until 2017, when he left his mortal coil. He was the longest serving Russian ambassador to India.
Kadakin was a great admirer of the Indian culture, cuisine, and its great and continuous history. He was fluent in Hindi, and was much appreciated for his knowledge about Indian society, and ethos. He had a keen interest in Indian films and had many books from India, including Panchatantra, Hitopadesha and Jungle book, as his childhood passion.
It will be apt here to quote his own words, on his passion for India.
“The other day, in Darjeeling, an idea struck my mind that the discovery of India is like scaling a Himalayan summit. The higher one ascends, the more the horizon broadens, and only at the top the breath-taking panorama unfolds in a short-lived drama of the morning. India has entered my life as a second homeland. It has become my Karma Bhumi, because I worked here for so many years, my Gyana Bhumi, because I have learnt a lot form here, my Tapa Bhumi (especially in the hot season), but most importantly – my Prema and Maitri Bhumi, because I have given a half of my heart to India and because me personally and the new Russia, which I have the honour to represent as Ambassador for the second time, have millions of good friends here.”
Kadakin plays on the word Tapa Bhumi, which he uses as a pun, to indicate the hot nature of climate in the Indian sub-continent. Tapa, which means penance, also means heat. This in short shows how well he understood the country and also its language-Hindi.
Kadakin was known by his pet name Shasha, among his admirers in India. Shasha is a name of the Moon divinity, Chandra Deva, in India.
So, while his pun on Tapa refers to the heat of the sun, his pet name indicates the coolness of the moon.
Kadakin first arrived in India on the “rainy day” of August 9th 1971, as he himself describes, when his country and India signed a landmark agreement of Indo-Russia friendship and cooperation treaty. This was the treaty was useful during the Bangladesh Liberation war of 1971.
He was also in India as the Deputy Chief of the Mission, in 1991, when the Soviet Union broke up.
Later on he served as ambassador of Russian Federation to India in 1999, and served two terms.
His association with India started in 1971 and went on till 2017. A 46 years long friendship.
Kadakin passed away in New Delhi on 26th January, 2017, on the occasion of India’s Republic Day. Prime Minister Narendra Modi had then described him as a “glorious son of Russia, and a great friend of India.
A friend he was, as played a key role in furthering the Indo-Russia diplomatic relations. He was posthumously awarded the prestigious Padma Bhushan in 2018, the third highest civilian award in India.
The Chanakyapuri road in Delhi has been named after him, in appreciation of Kadakin, who regarded India as his Karma Bhumi and Prema Bhumi.
A true Indophile indeed!