M Visveshvarya Birth Annv – Engineer’s Day

by D.K.Hari & D.K.Hema Hari, Founders, Bharath Gyan

Sir Mokshagundam Visveshvarya’s is among the greatest Engineers that this country has ever seen. He is known to have built many structures throughout his life. He built the Vidhana Sabha Assembly in Bangalore. The dams built by him stand to this day as a testimony of his great engineering skills. His birthday is thus an occasion to honour all engineers.

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Sir M Visveshvarya

Birth and Education

 Sir Visveshvarya was born on 15th September, 1860 at Muddenahalli village of Chickballapur district in Karnataka.

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Birthplace of Sir M Visveshvarya

He did his gradutation in Arts from Madras University in 1881 and went on to pursue civil engineering at the College of Science in Pune.

First Project

Sir Visveshvarya’s first major project was when he joined the Indian Irrigation Commission where he was give the task of constructing an irrigation system for the Deccan region.

Flood Security System, Hyderabad

His next major work was to build flood security system in Hyderabad.

Father of Karnataka

Karnataka is a state that has benefited greatly from the skills of Sir Visveshvarya. He is considered the ‘Father of Karnataka”.

Role in many industrial ventures

His skills both as an engineer came into play in many projects that have this day become major institutions and industries. He played a major role in the building of

*Iron and Steel Company in Bhadravati

* the Mysore Soap Factory,

* the Bangalore Agricultural University,

*Vidhana Soudha Assembly, Bangalore,

 *The State Bank of Mysore, Bangalore and

*Jayachamrajendra Polytechnic Institute among many other industrial ventures.

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Visveshvarya Iron and Steel Plant, Bhadravati

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Jayachamrajendra Polytechnic Institute

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Vidhana Soudha, Karnataka Assembly, Bangalore

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State Bank of Mysore, Bangalore

He was also the chief engineer of the construction of Krishna Raja Sagar Dam.

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Krishna Raja Sagar Dam

 An Administrator and a Visionary

Sir Visveshvarya was not only a great engineer and outstanding administrator but was also a visionary.

Integrity

There are many anecdotes about his integrity and honesty.

He used to use the candle, pen and ink provided by the government when writing notes related to work and, use his own candle, pen and ink when writing letter to his wife.

Engineer’s oath & Sir M Visveshvarya

The Canadian universities, engineering graduates, oath ceremony for graduation reads,

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Engineer giving his oath

When we go through the oath ceremony, we realize that Sir Visveshvarya actually lived the above oath through his life.

Commander of Indian Empire

For his great engineering skills and contribution in the same field, he was made the Commander of Indian Empire by King George 5.

Bharat Ratna

Sir Visveshvarya was conferred the Bharat Ratna, the highest civilian award in the country, in 1955.

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                        Bharat Ratna                 Sir M Visveshvarya with Jawaharlal Nehru

Sir Visveshvarya lived till the age of 101 and passed away on 14th April, 1962.

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Sir M Visveshvarya memorial in Muddennahali

Educational Institutions in Name

Today, there are many educational institutions in his name in the country such as the Visveshvarya National Institute of Technology in Nagpur, Visveshvarya College of Engineering in Bangalore and Visveshvarya Technological University, Belgaum.

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Visveshvarya Technological University, Belgaum

Statues

His statues can be found in many places across the state of Karnataka.

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A Statue of Sir M Visveshvarya

In Stamp

A stamp has been released in his honour by the Government of India.

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Engineers, the foundation

Engineers are the foundation of any developed civilization. India being the oldest surviving civilization has a long lineage of Engineers who are referred to as Vishvakarma.

Let us honour them

Let us on this day honour Bharat Ratna Sir M Visveshvarya along with engineers of modern India.

Subramanya Bharati Remembrance Day

Subramanya Bharati, popularly known as ‘Mahakavi Bharathiar’, is one of the greatest Tamil poets, who through his poems encouraged patriotism among people at the time of Indian Freedom Struggle.

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Mahakavi Bharathiar

Leading Literary Figure

Considered one of the leading figures in Tamil literature, Subramanya Bharati’s works mainly ranged in social, religious and patriotic arena.

Subramanya Bharati, affectionately called Bharathiar was born in Ettyapuram on December 11th, 1882. He completed his education in Tirunelveli and Varanasi.

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Birth Place of Bharathiar

Taking part in Freedom struggle

He joined the Indian National Congress and carried out revolutionary activities against the British rule, an aspect of which was his stirring poetry through which he kindled nationalism in people.

He also wrote articles for newspapers such as Swadeshamitra and India.

A National Poet

Mahatma Gandhi called him a national poet.

Poems on Women Emancipation

Among his poems were also many songs for women’s emancipation with the title of Kannama.

Coming to Pondicherry

The British police issued a warrant against him in 1908 for carrying out revolutionary activities. Bharathiar then went to Pondicherry, a French colony and lived there for the next 10 years. Here, he translated the Bhagavad Gita into Tamil.

Friendship with V O Chidambaram Pillai

Bharathiar was a close friend of V O Chidambaram Pillai, the other great freedom fighter who started the Swadeshi Shipping Company, forcibly closed by the British, as they perceived it as a threat to British interests.

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V O Chidambaram Pillai                 Swadeshi Shipping Company

The End

Bharathiar’s end came when he was shoved aside by an elephant in mast, at the Parthasarathy Temple in Triplicane, Madras. His condition deteriorated rapidly and he passed away on 11th September, 1921.

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  Parthasarathy Temple, Thiruvallikeni

Among his great grandchildren, Rajkumar Bharati is carrying forward his legacy.

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Rajkumar Bharati

The home where he spent the last few years of his life in Triplicane, also called Thiruvallikeni, has been named Bharathiar Illam, which stands adjacent to the Parthasarathy Temple.

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                    Bharathiar Illam                             

Vast Popularity

In Tamil Films

The songs of Bharathiar have been used in the Tamil films and Carnatic Music, for the past many decades.

Feature Film – Bharathi

Bharathi, a film on the life of Bharathiar was released in the year 2000. This film won the National Film Award for best Tamil Feature Film, for the year 2000.

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Bharathi Film on Bharathiar’s life

Streets, Associations and University in name

Almost every town of Tamil Nadu has a Bharathiar street. Tamil associations in different cities of the world have been named after him. There is a University in his name at Coimbatore. Such are his literary achievements.

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Bharathiar University, Coimbatore

Stamps in name

There are also stamps and coins released in his name by the government of India.

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Stamp on Bharathiar

Statues and Idols

Many statues have been erected for Bharatiyar all over Tamil Nadu. There are also some temples where his idol can be found. One such place is in Madhya Kailash temple in Adayar, Chennai, which has an idol for Bharathiar.

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                  Statue of Bharathiar, Chennai                                      Statue of Bharathiar, Pondicherry

All these speak of the immense popularity and wide acceptance of this Mahakavi.

Bagha Jatin Martyr Day

Jatindranath Mukherjee is one of the main Indian revolutionaries from Bengal, who fought against the British Rule.

Leader of Yugantar Party

He was the leader of the Yugantar party that carried out freedom related activities, against the British. He was actually at the helm of the party at a very young age.

Bagha Jatin – A Tiger

He was nicknamed Bagha Jatin, Bagha meaning tiger, for the great courage he showed at a tender age, in revolting against the British.

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Young Bagha Jatin

Indoctrinating Indian Soldiers

One of the main contributions of Bagha Jatin was that he and his party inculcated cognitive strategies and revolutionary spirit in Indian soldiers, for an uprising against the British.

His Slogan

His famous slogan was, “Amra Morbo, Jagat Jagbe”, meaning “We shall die to awaken the nation”.

 ‘A divine personality’

Gandhiji was so impressed by this revolutionary youth that he referred to Bagha Jatin as ‘a divine personality’.

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 Mahatma Gandhi and Bagha Jatin

Loved by Englishmen

Irrespective of Bagha Jatin’s revolutionary activities, he was also loved by many Englishmen. Charles Augustus Tegart, a colonial police officer had once remarked that if Bagha Jatin was born in England, then probably a statue would have been built for him and placed next to Nelson’s at Trafalgar Square. What he meant to say was that the great personality that Bagha Jatin was would have been highly revered in England.

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Charles Augustus Tegart

Hard and Soft

The impeccable character of Bagha Jatin was both hard and soft. He had a soft corner for those suffering and a charitable nature. At the same time, he demonstrated great physical bravery and prowess while fighting the colonial rulers.

Above caste and religion

Another striking quality in Bagha Jatin was that he was beyond the narrow confines of caste and religion. He even financially helped a Muslim women by sending her money every month.

Brave End and appreciation in death

Bagha Jatin’s revolt against the British led to a backlash from the colonial rulers. Bagha Jatin was mortally wounded by the British police and passed away on 10th September, 1915.

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Bagha Jatin during his last moments

Even at his death, there was a word of appreciation from the opponent forces. Charles Tegart, the colonial office who was part of the police squad that killed Bagha Jatin said, “Even though I had a duty to perform, I had a great admiration for Bagha Jatin. He died in an open fight.”

Statue

Today, his statue stands tall at the Victoria memorial in Kolkata.

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Bagha Jatin statue at Victoria Memorial, Kolkata

Institutions, places in name

Many institutions and places in Bengal have been named after this great freedom fighter.

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Bagha Jatin Railway Station, Kolkata

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Bagha Jatin Passenger

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Bagha Jatin Hospital, Kolkata

Amar Chitra Katha

Amar Chitra Katha paid a fitting tribute to Bagha Jatin by bringing out his story.

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It is due to the sacrifices of such freedom fighters that finally led to the British vacating India in 1947.

 

Teacher’s Day vs Guru Utsav

– Sandeep Singh, Business Consultant, Writer, Friend of Bharath Gyan

The syllable ‘gu’ means shadows
The syllable ‘ru’, means he who disperses them.
Because of the power to disperse darkness the guru is thus named.

Aaradvayatka Upanishad 14—18, verse 5

There is an unfortunate artificial darkness created around Teachers Day and Guru Utsav. I tried to understand the darkness and learned quit a bit about Teacher, Guru, Teachers Day, World Teachers Day, Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, and Guru Purnima. I am sharing the same.

Sanskrit has got four words Sikshak, Adhyapak, Acharya and Guru which are often used as synonym. Each of these words can be broadly understood as:

  • Teacher being equivalent to Sikshak

  • Professor being equivalent to Adhyapak

  • Principle being equivalent to Acharya

  • Guru doesn’t have an equivalent word in English. Hence it is used as Guru in all the languages.

Teacher gives the basic education.

Guru is a word much bigger than Teacher. As a noun the word means the imparter of knowledge. As an adjective, it means ‘heavy,’ or ‘weighty,’ in the sense of “heavy with spiritual wisdom”. Guru is one’s spiritual guide on earth. One is considered ‘orphan’ without a Guru.

In fact a Tamil saying describes the word “Guru” beautifully:
Guru illaakru vidhaiyum illai, mudhal illaarku labamum illai” i.e. This saying in Tamil means The Person who has no guru has no skill; just like a business without principle makes no profit.

Teachers’ day is celebrated in many countries but date varies from country to country.
World Teachers’ Day is distinct from Teachers’ days, and is officially celebrated across the world on October 5.

Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday, is celebrated as Teachers Day on 5th September from 1962 in India. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was born in a Telugu family at a village near Thiruttani , in Tamil Nadu near the border of Andhra Pradesh. His thesis for the M.A. degree was “The Ethics of the Vedanta and its Metaphysical Presuppositions”. His philosophy professor, Dr. Alfred George Hogg commended that Radhakrishnan has done most excellent work. Radhakrishnan’s thesis was published when he was only 20.

According to Radhakrishnan himself, the criticism by Hogg and other Christian teachers of Indian culture “disturbed my faith and shook the traditional props on which I leaned.” Radhakrishnan himself describes how, as a student, “The challenge of Christian critics impelled me to make a study of Hinduism and find out what is living and what is dead in it. My pride as a Hindu, roused by the enterprise and eloquence of Swami Vivekananda, was deeply hurt by the treatment accorded to Hinduism in missionary institutions.” This led him to his critical study of Indian philosophy and religion, and a lifelong defence of Hinduism against “uninformed Western criticism”.

For his services to education he was knighted by George V in 1931. He stopped use of the title after India became independent. He preferred to use his academic title of ‘Doctor’. In 1939 Pt. Madan Mohan Malaviya invited him to succeed him as the Vice-Chancellor of Banaras Hindu University (BHU). He served as its Vice-Chancellor till January 1948. His political career started after BHU.

Radhakrishnan did not have a background in the Congress Party. His motivation lay in his pride of Hindu culture, and according to Brown, “He had always defended Hindu culture against uninformed Western criticism and had symbolized the pride of Indians in their own intellectual traditions.”

Gurupurnima falls on the day of, Purnima (full moon), in the month of Ashadh (June–July) of the Shaka Samvat (Gregorian calendar). Gurupurnima is as old as civilisation and is celebrated by all spiritual religions of India. Indian from all the fields, ranging from music to dance, academic to sports etc. celebrate this day by thanking their teachers as well as remembering past teachers and scholars.

Looking at above facts, it makes perfect sense to observe Radhakrishnan’s birthday as Guruutsav rather than as Teachers Day. Radhakrishnan was beyond “direction or language” division. Infact efforts should be made to celebrate his birthday as International Guruutsav Day. The world will be happy to accept it.

Paul Artur Schillp has said “….nor would it be possible to find a more excellent example of a living “bridge” between the East and the West than Professor Radhakrishnan.” While Michael Hawley said “Radhakrishnan’s concern for experience and his extensive knowledge of the Western philosophical and literary traditions has earned him the reputation of being a bridge-builder between India and the West.”

Last but not the least, Modern English, which includes the works of William Shakespeare and the King James Version of the Bible, is generally dated from about 1550. And only after the United Kingdom became a colonial power, English spread outside England. To top it more than 65% of English words are actually taken from other languages including from India. It will also be important to mention that the word Guru is more English than the modern day apologists of English and as old as English itself. The word Guru was first used in English in the year 1613.

Radhashtami

Concepts and Misconceptions on Radha

Of all the Gopis that Krishna used to play with, Radha was His favourite and Krishna was everything to Radha.

 Some have explained Radha as a concept that denotes pure love and devotion. Various forms of art have depicted Krishna and Radha as a couple. Some stories tell us that Krishna married Radha.Some others describe Radha as a married woman, older to Krishna, who was enamoured by Krishna and sought Krishna’s company. Some have even gone to the extent of writing derogatorily that Radha was a concubine.

In modern times too, Radha has been described by a few, even in learned circles, as a Gopi who had a live-in relationship with Krishna.

345-Radha and Krishna

 Radha and Krishna

Radha and Krishna were together only in Vrindavan, before Krishna left for Mathura, never to return to Vrindavan ever again. Krishna then was less than twelve years old.

How could Krishna, a child who may not have attained puberty, not yet in his teens, have had a live-in relationship?

Such statements evidently show a deliberate suppression of real fact while blowing out of proportion an incorrect interpretation of the context and concept of Radha and Krishna relationship.

 Such misconceptions could also have set in due to picturizations that show Krishna not as a 10 to 12 year old lad but instead as a young handsome man while in the company of Radha and the Gopi.

Comprehending the true essence of such picturizations, needs an indepth understanding of the meaning of “Radha”.

 Meaning of Radha

 Ra means to give, to yield. Dha means to leave, to let go, to wish to give, to wish to gain, to strive after, to fix mind upon. These two syllables when joined together as “Radha”, give a very interesting interpretation.

 It is only when we “give in” and “let go of ourselves” with “our mind fixed upon” the truth, can “we gain” the realization of the true self within ourselves as well as the universal divinity. If we hold back, there is no gain.

The word Radha, aptly suggests that we give ourselves in, fully, to realize the divinity that encapsulates us and this whole universe, of which we are but a part.

 Radha thus embodies the act of complete and unconditional surrender, which is also known as Sharanagathi, surrendering at the feet of the divine. Pure Bhakti, devotion, is when one unconditionally gives oneself unto the other.

Historical Radha

Radha has been accorded historical status by various accounts. Legends state that Radha, the Gopi, was already a married woman when she met Krishna.

The husband of Radha was a senior trusted soldier in the army of Kamsa, the wily king of Mathura. Kamsa had deputed Radha’s husband to battle in the far ends of his kingdom. It is probably then that Radha spent her time with the local children, especially Krishna and participated in their playful deeds.

To misconstrue this association beyond this, from an immoral perspective, would be incorrect, given the facts of the story.

The birth place of Radha is Brahmasarin, which is now known by the name Barsana. This place is about 45 kilometers from Mathura. Radha’s husband’s name was Abhimanyu. Jatiladevi was her mother-in-law and Kutiladevi, her sister-in-law.

 Radha’s father was Vrushabhanu and mother, Kirtida. These information are available in Brahma Vaivarta Purana, Padma Purana, Narada Purana and Garga Samhita.

 Radha was born at noon on Sukla paksha ashtami of Bhadrapada month, i.e on the 8th day of the increasing phase of the moon in the month spanning across August – September, in present times.

 This day falls 14 days after Krishna Janmashtami and is celebrated with much gaiety in the birthplace of Radha at Barsana and also all over Braj Bhumi as Radhashtami.

More on Radha in our upcoming book ‘Historical Krishna’ to be released shortly in three volumes.

Krishna1  Krishna3 Krishna2