Equipping The Aquifers

The cities of modern India, the concrete jungles, are on the brink of severe water crisis. One city is competing with another as to which will dry up first.

A recent National Geophysical Research Institute (NGRI) finding states that the ground water in cities like Hyderabad, Chennai, Delhi and Mumbai along with several other cities of North India is declining at a rapid pace.



The graph accompanying the report shows that most of the cities in the north of India, in a short span of next 3 years would have no ground water beneath.

The report goes on to state,

“History shows that civilizations have vanished once water is gone. Water carries people and we need to do something before it is too late.”

This alarming situation has been primarily created because the cities have become concrete jungles. The channels to the local aquifers through which the rain water seeped in, have all been sealed. They have become places for public utility, thus depriving the land below the cities of their water. Consequently, the ground water that comes up through bore wells has got high levels of chloride and nitrates which in excess are harmful to our health.

What is the way out?

We have to first become alive to the situation, recognize that we have a problem on hand and act constructively before it is too late.

First what is an aquifer?

Underneath the hard rock on the surface of the earth, are layers of different types of rock. Some layers such as sandstone, conglomerate, fractured limestone, unconsolidated sand and gravel, basalt etc. have some amount of porosity and therefore allow water to seep and flow through them. Each type of rock allows the water to flow faster or slower depending on the size of its pores.

Water seeps in and exists within each rocky layer. Depending on the pattern in which these rocky layers are formed in the earth, water chooses to flow faster or slower in certain paths.

Thus if we can see through the rocks, we will see a slowly moving water body. This body of rock through which water is moving, is called an aquifer.


An aquifer should not be mistaken for an underground river. An underground river is one that has a clear cut channel for water to move under the ground. Water does not have to seep through the rocks to move. It flows freely in the channel. It is just that the channel is buried and not seen from above ground.

Since in an aquifer, the water travels through tiny pores of the rocks, the water that comes out of an aquifer is usually clean.

Aquifers have natural recharge zones where water enters the rocky layer and they have a natural discharge zone where the water comes out of the rocks and collects as a pool or well. In between, man can intervene and drill into these rocks and tap into the aquifers. These are the bore wells of today.

It is because of these aquifers and plenty of recharge zones which allowed rain water to seep in, that we had wells, springs and tanks overflowing with water right through the year in India, across all seasons, even in times of failed monsoon.

In present times the situation is quite different.

  • Aquifer recharge zones have been blocked with unmindful construction.

  • Aquifer discharge zones have also been blocked with unmindful construction.

  • Aquifers have been tapped into indiscriminately with powerful bore wells.

  • Aquifers are being drained at a rate faster than that at which they are getting recharged.

  • Aquifer recharge zones are contaminated with chemicals and bacteria which enter the acquifer.

As a result, aquifers which are the main source of clean, ground water have all dried up and the result is water shortage everywhere.

Much of this is happening in cities since there are more people trying to live off the limited number of aquifers under the city.

When we construct any building, the first thing we need to do is build a foundation which goes to a depth that is calculated in proportion to the height of the building we want to construct.

Then why is it that when we come to cities, we do not make such fundamental calculations to build and populate in a regulated manner?

We think that a building is supported only by the concrete foundation below. We fail to think of the amount of ground water that will be available to support all the inhabitants of the building once it is completed.

Today’s buildings stand much beyond what their foundations can support – not the concrete ones but the rocky aquifers. The height of buildings in cities has far exceeded the depth of the aquifers available. The cities have literally sucked all the water out of the aquifers. To keep life in the cities going, water from aquifers in nearby areas too have been extracted and supplied to the cities.

The red zone in the graph is the most densely populated region of India as well as the world. No wonder we are seeing the graph as published by the NGRI.

Can our aquifers give us water once again?

Let us first look at what our ancestors had followed.

We may laugh at them for revering water as Punya Theertha, holy water. But they were wise enough to build percolation tanks for every small area of inhabitation. Typically these were built near temples and at outskirts of the village alongside slopes to catch the rainwater. These percolation tanks kept the aquifers recharged. The collection of water from these aquifers was also from natural wells, springs etc. which ensure that only as much as the aquifer could discharge was collected. They did not indiscriminately use powerful motors to suck up the waters from the aquifer faster than it could accumulate.

All this also meant that the population of any settlement was automatically regulated so that there was no undue burden on the aquifer and natural water resources.

Z To A

People are usually in the habit of using a phrase “A to Z”. But here we will talk about “Z to A”. Lets see what it means.

We have water harnessing practices which are local to the topography and climate of the region, across the length and breadth of India.

The water harnessing system in Ladakh in the North, is called the Zing, where they collect the waters as the snow melts, and channelize them for their agriculture and residential needs.

Kutch in the west, has its own system called Vradha.

It is Apatani in Arunachal Pradesh in the east.

In South India, it is the Eri, large tanks, Oorani, the smaller ponds and Annaicut, which are the water diversionary bunds.

In this land, through the years, the people have devised their own water harnessing practices from Zing in Ladakh to Annaicut of Kanyakumari, i.e. from Z to A. The people of this land have thereby harnessed the water for their prosperity through the ages.



Uniform observation

The observations of Megasthenes in 320 BCE , by Al Beruni in 1030 BCE and later by Sir Arthur Cotton show that the land as a whole was prosperous across ages because it employed sustainable water harnessing techniques generation after generation, to harness the monsoon waters  and use it through the year for the prosperity of the society, of the civilization.


Equipping our Aquifers

There are hundreds of lakes and other water systems dotting this land. These lakes and tanks have existed since time immemorial, much before the cities engulfed them. These water bodies are situated where they are, considering the topography, the gradient of the land.

Within each city there are not just a few, but a few hundred water bodies which were maintained by our ancestors through the ages for their benefit during their times.

 For our benefit in our times, we need to take the lead from our noble ancestors and maintain our aquifers so that our cities do not dry up and remain as sustainable places of living for our children and grandchildren.

 What needs to be done as a self-interest, local effort, is to ensure that each of these tanks, lakes which find themselves in the midst of every burgeoning city, are properly freed up from blockages, cleaned up to receive and store rainwater and thus used as recharge zones for the aquifers, the purpose for which they originally came to be.

 Next is an introspection on how one can decongest cities or certain regions, to put lesser demand on the limited aquifers under a city.

It is the month of May, when we are all feeling the brunt of the lack of water in our ground water sources. It is the right time to act, to ready ourselves to start gathering the rain water when the monsoon starts in June/July so that we can equip our aquifers atleast for the coming year and years to come.

 Where there is a will there is a way – for water – for an aquifer.

 May our efforts bear fruit.

Foodprint to Footprint

Water And Food

June to September are the months when South and South East Asia get their monsoon rains.

The word “monsoon” comes from the Arabic word, “Mawsin”, meaning weather, which is why we have the word “Mausam” in Hindi for weather.  Here, the weather turns to rainy season.

It is the rain that gives us Pushkaram, fertility which is why every temple tank is called as Pushkarni, that land which gives us fertility.

The purpose of this rain, the harnessing of these waters and creating fertility is to make food for humans, for animals, for plants and for the earth as a whole. For food, is the basic platform, annamaya kosha, on which life is built for all living beings. Different beings take to different foods based on availability, biological needs, suitability, taste and other such factors. Producing this food also needs water. Foods cannot be grown without enormous quantity of water. When we think of our needs of water, we think of only our daily ablutions and our drinking water needs.

We normally think of the few litres of water that we drink in a day. Have we ever thought how much water is required to make the fruit that is served in our plate?

Water Consumption

We hardly think of the quantum of water that is needed which goes behind food production. Infact over 80% of the water that is used on the surface of this earth is for agriculture and other type of food production. Only about 10% is needed for industry and the balance 10% is for domestic and other uses. Infact domestic usage is a very small quantity.

Water consumption

The average consumption of direct water per person, per day is 3 litres.

Food Consumption

To grow the amount of food that an average person consumes for lunch or dinner, 700 litres is required per meal. The chart here gives us the water needed to grow our food.

Water for food1

Here we see that the real consumption of water is in food production, agriculture. We see that for agriculture itself it is so much.

In the case of livestock, meat production, the need of water is manifolds times more because these animals also have to consume water, air, food for all their lives. At, the end of it, they offer only few kilos of meat.

Water for food2

Water needed to produce Food


1 litre of beer

300 litres of water

1 ltrs wine

872 litres of water

1 cup of coffee

140 litres of water

1 litre of milk

800 litres of water


1 kilo of rice

3600 litres of water

1 kilo of wheat

1375 litres

1 kilo toor dal

1400 litres of water

Non Vegetarian

1 kilo of chicken

4325 litres

1 kilo Mutton

5520 litres

1 kilo Beef meat

13000 litres

Veg vs Non Veg

Daily average consumption of water by a vegetarian eater is 2500 litres where as for a non vegetarian eater is 8000 litres per day.

This insight into how much water is needed for a vegetarian meal as opposed to a non vegetarian meal clearly highlights to us as to which is more eco friendly.

With the world facing increasing water shortage that has come about due to the unsustainable practices of man rather than reduced rainfall, the only sustainable way of sharing the available limited quantum of water, the prudent option and a scientific one, is to be a vegetarian by choice.

That is the only way we can reduce our ecological footprint and leave the planet more sustainable for generations to come.

Consumerism to Conservation

Ecological footprint is what we use up, consume from our environment around us during our brief stay on this earth. It is the strain that we put forth on the resources of mother earth.

Ecological footprint

The generation next is talking about ecological footprint as the new buzz word but do their eating habits show their concern for the ecology?

For eating is what we do 3-4 times a day and that is by far the  largest foot print that we leave or rather erase from this earth.

If we and our generation next have to survive, then the planet has to survive this phase of consumerism. This can happen only with a mind shift from consumerism to conservation. Conservation of Foodprints, Conservation of Footprints; it is saving water, conserving water, minimal usage of water. Moving from non- vegetarianism to vegetarianism is one of the key ways that we can contribute to this effort, four times a day, every day of our lives.

Taxing Time – The Way forward?


In the last couple of decades we have come to realize that smoking is injurious to health not just to the smoker’s health but as well as to friends colleagues and family around who have been termed as passive smokers. So, to reduce the habit of smoking, governments now levy additional tax on cigarettes and tobacco product to dissuade people from smoking, to make the environment cleaner and healthier.


Consumption of liquor is also a problem the world over. Excess liquor not only damages the liver of a person but also their lives. It affects the family as a whole and causes other collateral damages like road accidents, improper behavior towards woman, being uncouth. Recognizing this, the governments the world over have started levying additional taxes on liquor to put liquor out of reach for many. There are states where there is prohibition on liquor consumption.

Non Vegetarian Food

Through this article and by a series of others by other writers, it is becoming more apparent that consumption of non vegetarian food is making our environment unsustainable. It is evident that non vegetarian food eaters consume more of the ecological resources and leave behind a larger footprint than their vegetarian fellow beings.

Recognizing the extra strain that non vegetarianism is placing on the environment, the next step that the government should do is to impose additional tax on non vegetarian food so that vegetarians don’t have to bear the folly of others.

The additional tax could well be used to rejuvenate the environment and restore it to a sustainable state. Also, it would educate and motivate people to migrate from non vegetarianism to vegetarianism to make this world , our home, a sustainable one in the long run.

Eat Right & Be Merry

After taxing times come celebrations. Celebrations invoke the image of Carnivals.


A Carnival is a festival where all enjoy with merriment. The very word “carnival” conjures up images of rides, pageants, colorful decorations, unending food and flowing liquor.

merry go round carousel carnival ride

Let us step back and look at the context in which this word “carnival” came to be. Its origins could be “Carne Vale” or “Carne Levare” which means “the act of abstaining from consumption of meat”. The word “Carne” is the root for words such as “carnal” denoting flesh and “carnivorous” for meat eating animals.

Such a practice does exist in many societies of Europe during the annual Lent period, a period when meat is strictly abstained from.

The Merry Goes Round

From then, to now, Carnival has become a festival where meat consumption is very high. What an interesting turnaround? A 180 degree turn from “Carne Vale”, “abstaining from meat” to becoming “Carnivorous”!

This shift has occurred between the medieval period to present times.

Is it not time now for another 180 degrees shift from the present to the future? From Non vegetarianism to Vegetarianism?

A shift to celebrating, living without meat, for, life is a celebration – a sustained celebration if we know how to celebrate it responsibly.

The Mystery of Sun Temples

It is the month of June.

Days are longest and it is the hottest month in the northern hemisphere.

People turn to the Sun to pray for respite from its scorching heat.

Time to look for the Temples to the Sun to offer our prayers for a bearable summer.

Where are the Sun Temples in India?

Sun temples are famous in different parts of India. They have been built and venerated from time immemorial.

We have had Sun temples from Kashmir to Kanyakumari and from Afghanistan to Assam in the ancient Indian land of Bharatha, the most popular ones being Konark temple in Orissa, the Sun temple in Modhera and the Suryanarkovil in Kumbakonam among others which fall on the popular tourist circuits.


Sun Temple, Konark


Sun Temple, Modhera

The land of India today spans from 6.7 degrees North latitude to 37.1 degrees North latitude. In this wide span, we find a plethora of Sun temples, almost in a straight line around 23 degrees North latitude.

Save for a few such as Suryanarkovil near Kumbakonam in Tamil Nadu at 10.8 degrees North, the  Konark Sun Temple in Orissa at 19.9 degrees North etc. most of the other renowned temples can be found around 23 degrees North. Some are in ruins, some are memories and some are still in use today.

  • Suryanarayanaswamy temple at Arasavalli in Andhra Pradesh – 18.27 degrees

  • Sun Temple at Somnath Patan near Veraval in Gujarat – 20.9 degrees

  • Sun Temple at Madkheda near Tikamgadh, Madhya Pradesh – 22.9 degrees

    Sun Temple at Umri near Tikamgadh, Madhya Pradesh – 22.9 degrees

  • Sun Temple at Kandaha, Bangaon, near Saharsa in Bihar – 23.0 degrees

  • Harsiddhi temple at Ujjain – Harsiddhi – 23.09 degrees

  • The famous Sun Temple at Modhera, near Ahmedabad, Gujarat –  23.5 degrees

  • Kanthad Nath at Kanthkot  near Rapar- 23.48 degrees

  • Sun Temple at Dholavira  – 23.89 degrees

  • 8th Century Sun Temple in Chittorgarh Fort, destroyed in 14th century and rebuilt as Kali temple  – 24.59 degrees

  • Surya mandir, Deo, Aurangabad, Bihar, 85 kms from Gaya – 24.5 degrees

  • Dakshinaarka Temple in Gaya – 24.7 degrees

  • Uttaraka temple near the Uttara Maanas tank in Gaya – 24.7 degrees

  • Gayaditya temple on the river Falgu in Gaya  – 24.7 degrees

  • Sun Temple at Jhaira Patan near Kota in Rajasthan: Ruins of an ancient temple – 25.1 degrees

    The Dwadasha Aditya temples and more in Kashi also called Varanasi – 25.2 degrees

  • The Bhramanya Dev Temple at Unao in Madhya Pradesh, near Jhansi –  25.6 degrees

  • Sri Surya Pahar, Sun Temple at Goalpara in Assam  26.0

  • Sun Temple at Galta near Jaipur in Rajasthan – 26.5 degrees

    Sun temple in Morar at Gwalior – 26.2 degrees

  • Sun Temple at Ranakpur near Udaipur in Rajasthan – 27.0 degrees

    Sun Temple near Almora in Uttarakhand – 29.37 degrees

  • Sun Temple at Martand in Jammu and Kashmir 32.5 degrees

Not just these, the renowned sun temples of another Sun worshipping ancient civilization, namely Egypt, also has its sun temples at

  • Abu Simbel – 22.6 degrees

  • Karnak, Luxor – 25.43


Why do we find so many Sun temples almost in a straight row and that too around 23 degrees North latitude?

What did our ancestors know about the Sun that we do not, today?

 What is the mystery behind this pattern?

23.5 degrees North latitude is the Tropic of Cancer.

As we have read in our school books, the Tropic of Cancer is the line up to which the sun moves North in its annual journey.

 Sun at the Tropic

Sun at the Tropic Of Cancer on June 21

This movement of the sun between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn and its significance has already been discussed by us, in the Rishimukh magazine of January 2010 and  April 2010.

The way of living of our ancestors was in harmony with the Cosmos. They conducted their life, the annual and daily activities in their lives, in sync with the flow and rhythm of seasons, Rthu. Their Dharma, way of living,was governed by the Dharma, way of operating,of the Cosmic Nature.

Hence they tracked the sun and other celestial bodies in the sky to read the skies and prepare themselves for the daily, annual and spiritual change that are bound to occur as our planet earth hurtles on its journey through space along with its parent, the Sun and its siblings , the other planets in the solar system.

Each of these temples was specially designed to receive the rays of the sun inside the sanctum sanctorum, garbha graha, and illuminate the idol with a natural glow, on special days, especially the period around Summer Solstice.

June, is thus the time to watch our Sun go to the northern most point in its path in the skies and marvel at the knowledge, the sagacity and the architectural skills of our ancestors, which has found expression in the form of these temples to the Sun all over India and has become one of the traditions of India.

June – What shall we celebrate this month?

June is a month when there are no major festivals in India.

Why is it so?

June is the month when we have the onset of monsoon all over India. It generally sets in around the 1st of June in Kerala and by the end of June, slowly, steadily and gradually spreads all over India.

India with cloud

 We all know that, from time immemorial, India has been an agrarian society and what is important for such an agrarian society relying on agriculture, to survive, to prosper?


Water for agriculture in India is mainly provided by the monsoon rains. If there are major festivals in this month when the monsoon starts, then the attention of the people will be diverted towards the festival, instead of harnessing the water when it rains and diverting the water towards their fields.

Dam 2 copy

If there are no festivals, then all their attention will be towards, sowing the seeds, transplanting them when they are big enough to be transplanted, spaced about correctly for them to grow as healthy plants and removing the weeds as the crops grow so that the young plants get all the nourishment and water for them to grow.

Sowing of rice

This work is a time bound activity and has to be completed within a short time window so that the crops get the required amounts of water at the right stage of their growth and the monsoon is leveraged properly.

This activity therefore requires the whole family, male and female, elders and youngsters, to be involved whole heartedly. All hands at the field!

Given this fact of nature, its timing and the need of the society, an agricultural economy, isn’t it wonderful that this phase of the year in India, has been kept devoid of festivals, so that people can focus on work – agriculture.

To make this work a joy and fun, the farmers in India used to celebrate work in the form of the sowing festival. Songs were sung as they sowed and planted the seedlings. The fields would come alive with a riot of colours and music as the women descended into the fields, against the backdrop of a cloudy sky. This festival is celebrated in a very few parts of India today but continues to be celebrated with fervour in many other parts of Asia even today.

This month in the Indian calendar, is known as Jyeshta in Hindi and Aani in the Tamil calendar.

From all this, it is obvious that the festivals of India are designed in such a way, keeping in mind the agrarian society and its needs. The festivals were not randomly celebrated but were in sync with nature and the society.

Given this understanding, there is one very important astronomic event happening every year, year after year, in the month of June. This event among other events is a time marker and affects us in our daily life. What is this event?

As we know, the earth is tilted on its axis by 23.4 degrees. Because of this tilt and the revolution of the earth around the sun, we perceive the sun to be moving northwards and southwards between the 2 lattitudes, Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn, successively, in its annual six monthly journey each way.

On June 21st of every year, our sun reaches the northern end of its journey at the Tropic of Cancer and transits into its journey southwards towards the tropic of Capricorn. The northern journey of the sun is known Uttarayan, Uttar meaning north and the Southern Journey is called Dakshinayan, Dakshin meaning southward.

21st June is the day the sun reaches the northern most point of its journey and is “still’ on that day at the Tropic of Cancer. It is called the Summer Solstice.

summer solstice

For the people living in the northern hemisphere this consequently happens to be the longest day of the year. It is the mid summer day. A month before and after this day is peak summer in the northern hemisphere. This season in Indian languages is known as Greeshma Rthu, Greeshma meaning warm or hot. That is why we have the Hindi word ‘garam’ for hot.

Rthu means season. The flow of seasons happens repeatedly without fail every year, year after year, come what may, June after May, come rain or shine. That is why it is called rthu.

The root word for Rthu is Rtha, from which also comes the English word rhythm.

Seasons are a rhythmic flow that happen regularly every year without fail. This understanding of how the earth revolves around the sun in a rhythmic manner giving rise to the rhythmic movements of the sun across the sky, creating seasons for us, led to the design of the calendar and the festivals of India embedded, woven in sync with our culture, society and civilization, in this ancient and continuously lived in land. Festivals, of India are in rhythm and in sync with Nature.

Everything in our body, our lives, our festivals, our activities are in rhythm with ourselves, our livelihood, our societies, our earth, our sun and the cosmos.

This month of June, when there are no major festivals, reminds us of this rhythm and gives us an opportunity to celebrate this understanding of every society having to be in tune with nature’s rhythm.

So, in June, let us celebrate all that the monsoons augur.

Varsha – Why She Comes, When She Does?

India receives its monsoon rain every year in June. This has been happening without fail year after year for the last so many millennia.

 Annual Rains in Ramayana times

Even in the Ramayana text, there is mention of this annual rainy season period. In the year 5076 BCE, Sugreeva and his army had to wait for a couple of months before starting their march to Lanka, because it was the rainy season. This shows that this rain is an annual, regular feature.

 Correlation between rain, year and land

 Rain, in India, is called Varsha.

The year is also called Varsha.

The land is also called Bharatha Varsha.

So, there is a distinct correlation between rain, year and land.

 Varsha, Varsha, Varsha

 The arrival of Varsha, the rain, at a regular frequency of once a year, gave the notion of Varsha, the year and the land on which she poured, gave the notion of Varsha, the nation.

 The cause for Monsoon in India

 Have we ever questioned as to why it rains every year without fail?

What are the forces of nature that brings rain every year to this land?

Have we ever thought what brings us these rains?

To answer these questions, we need to step back a bit and look at not just the landscape of India but look at the world as a whole.

 Heat generates wind flow

 In the month of May, it is summer in the Northern hemisphere, especially in India, with the average temperature in the inlands of India touching over 45 degrees centigrade. This extreme heat creates a low pressure in the central parts of India as well as over the Thar Desert of Rajasthan.

 Similarly, in Northern Africa, in the Sahara desert, the temperatures are also in the range of 45-50 degrees centigrade, due to which there is also a low pressure created there. At the same time, it is winter in the southern hemisphere. The great Australian desert is cooler and hence higher pressure prevails there.

 In the case of swirling winds on earth, it is well known that winds always move from a higher pressure region to a low pressure region.

 Pressure Zones

 The pressure zones are created by heat and cold, among other factors and the winds keep swirling all over the world, trying to neutralize these pressures. Due to this reason, the winds move from cooler and high pressured, Central Australia, in a northwesterly direction, towards the huge Sahara Desert because it is hot and low pressure there.

 Ferrel’s Law in action

 But, as soon as the winds cross the equator, they change direction and instead of blowing in a northwesterly direction they blow in a northeasterly direction and start approaching the Indian subcontinent, because of which India has been experiencing its bountiful Southwest monsoons every year.

William Ferrel was an American Meteorologist who lived between 1817 and 1891. He developed many theories which explained atmospheric circulations.

Ferrell American Meteorologist, William Ferrel

 Ferrel’s Law states that “high pressure systems, as seen from space tend to spin clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and counter clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere and low pressure systems spin in the respective reverse direction.”

Ferrel Law

Graphical Depiction of Ferrel’s law

 This means that, the moment the winds cross the equator or go from one hemisphere to the other, they automatically change direction. Thus, the rain bearing winds, going towards Africa, change their direction while crossing the equator and blow towards India, bringing the monsoon rains to India.

 Equatorial Bulge

 What is of interest to be noted here is that, the equatorial bulge is believed to be the cause for this change in the direction of the wind flow.

 Source of Monsoons

 All this shows that the world is One. While the lands may be many, Nature’s way of reaching out is indeed interesting.

 Whoever would have thought that the copious monsoon rains, that this land of India receives, starts as dry, hot winds in the Australian desert which pick up moisture in the Indian Ocean, turn direction after crossing the equator, come towards the land of India and then pour out all the moisture as monsoon rains year on year, to make this land a prosperous one?

 Do we harness?

 What do we do with the waters brought to us by these benevolent clouds, which have travelled all the way from the Great Dessert?

 While nature pours a bounty on this land, unfailingly, year after year, do we take the effort of harnessing it for the rest of the year?

 We have discussed this in our earlier Rishimukh article – Fill a Pail of Water, in the month of July 2011. The same can also be accessed from our Bharath Gyan website.

 Wind churn – Earthly, Solar and Galactic

 This churn of winds on the face of the earth is beneficial in bringing rains of our land. Similarly, there is also a churn of solar winds in the solar system and also a churn of galactic winds at a galactic level, which have got their own effects on us.

 This we discuss in some good detail in our book, 2012 – The Real Story.

                         2012-front cover 2012-back cover

2012 – The Real Story

 As we await the annual visit of Varsha this year, let us marvel at the precise, principled and predictable way of working of Nature.

 Let us relish the rains this season and the shower of knowledge.