Navaratri – Celebrating Change

India is a vast land with an ancient culture. It has a range of colourful festivals. Navaratri is one among these festivals. This festival is not celebrated for a day, but for nine nights as the term Navaratri suggests.

Honouring Feminine Forces

While the period and date of festival is common across the land, it is celebrated in different ways across the land, but is still the same festival and spans across the same time window. The spirit is the same, that of honouring the feminine forces in Nature in the form of the three Goddesses Durga, Lakshmi, and Sarasvati, which finds expression in the place of honour given to women and girls during this festival.

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Navaratri Celebrations across the land

Celebrated with Different names in different ways

In Tamil Nadu and other parts of South India, it is celebrated as Kolu, festival of dolls, ending with Sarasvati Puja. In Mysore, it is celebrated as Dassera with Devi Chamundi as the primary divinity. In Bengal, it is called Durga Puja. In Central India and Northern India, Dassera is celebrated with the Dahana, burning of the effigy of Ravana to symbolize the victory of good over evil.

How is it that the same festival is celebrated in different ways in the same culture, in the same religious milieu and still accepted across the land by the same name, Navaratri and Dassera?

The connecting bond for all these festivals is the culture, which is called Samskrti. The word Samskrti itself means “that which is well done” as Kriti means “to do well”.

This is said so for, over time, the civilization in India had learnt, understood and perfected the ways of living. It is a way of living which is in sync with Nature as reflected in the timing of the festivals in India which are mainly based on seasons and the scientific principles of Nature.

4 Navaratri

Even though most people celebrate just one Navaratri festival during September – October every year, there are actually 4 Navaratri festivals in a year, each lasting for 9 nights and days.

Why are there 4 Navaratri festivals in a year?

India has 4 seasons and so Navaratri is celebrated 4 times in a year.

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The prime ones are celebrated in the months of March-April, the transition from Winter to Spring and in the months of September-October, the transition from summer to autumn. If you note, these are the windows close to the two equinoxes as well, the period when days and nights are equal and balanced.

Why does each celebration last for nine nights and days?

Navaratri festival celebrates the transitory nature between the four major seasons in Nature, they being summer, winter, spring and autumn. The transition from one to the other season does not take place in just one day but in fact was considered in Indian thought, to be a full span of 9 to 10 days. So this transitional nature of Nature was earmarked as a period of time which is 9 days and 9 nights.

From such practices, it comes out clear to us that, in the traditional Indian thought, while there was a definite calendar with days, hours, minutes and finer divisions of time, equal importance was also given to transitory periods – transition from day to night, from month to month, from season to season and so on.

Change in Season, Change in life pattern

When seasons change, life pattern also changes. The body which is a part of Nature, changes with changing surroundings, change in seasons. There is a change in diet pattern, sleep, metabolism etc. with the change in season. In a society closely in tune with Nature, it also affects occupations, work undertaken, dressing and overall behavior. Navaratri is such a transition from one season to another and is a celebration of this change.

Whenever there is a change, one can either resist it or accept it. With resistance comes hardships.  With acceptance comes mellowness. Celebrating is one way of yielding to and accepting a change wholeheartedly. And where there is wholehearted acceptance, contentment will follow and so will happiness.

Navaratri is the expression of such a celebration where we recognize there is going to be a change, understand the change that is to follow and accept it willingly.

Alignment of Energies

There is a saying in the Samskrt language, “Yatha Pinde thatha Brahmande” – “As in Microcosm, so in Macrocosm”. This phrase brings forth the relationship between our body, the body of earth and body of cosmos.

The gross world, the Macrocosm, is filled with varieties of astral bodies such as the earth, sun, planets, comets, stars, nebulae and galaxies. All these bodies are in continual motion, which brings about continuous change not only in the huge cosmos but all the way in every tiny living and non living being all the way on earth.

As these bodies keep moving and causing change in the cosmos, they keep aligning and realigning amongst themselves. These alignments bring in an interplay amongst the forces of Nature.

All these alignments have their effects on each of the bodies in space including the body that is us.

The Trinity of Energy

Our mind too, the Microcosm, is constantly under the interplay, alignment of 3 subtle forces or energies.

  • Ichcha Shakti – desire or will to act and manifest
  • Kriya Shakti – potential to act and manifest
  • Gnana Shakti – knowledge power for the manifestation

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An alignment of these energies denotes the culmination of their interplay, leading to a balanced state of mind and individual. This knowledge, Gnana Shakti, should lead us, the people, civilizations and human race as a whole, to use our potential and faculties, i.e. Kriya Shakti, for aligning our subconscious desire and will, Ichcha Shakti to be in sync with the Cosmos.

It is these 3 energies in the form of the three Goddesses, Durga, Lakshmi and Sarasvati that the Indians from time immemorial have been invoking and realigning themselves with, during the seasonal transition festival called Navaratri.

Surgical Strike Day

India under Modi government of 2014 carried out two surgical strikes, to send a strong message to terrorists and to let people know that the country can defend itself.

Surgical Strike Day

Surgical Strike At Indo-Myanmar Border

On 10th June 2015, Indian Army conducted surgical strikes against the terrorist camps along the Indo-Myanmar border and killed around 158 terrorists. This was after the terrorists had martyred 18 Army Jawans. This was the first time that India showed that it could respond effectively to the enemy and strike them right at their den.

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Surgical Strike At Pak Occupied Kashmir (PoK)

After this, came the Surgical Strike in Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (POK) in September 2016. Pakistan, from its militant launch pads, across the Line of Control, had been sending terrorists into Jammu and Kashmir, for many years now. These terrorists used to sneek into the Indian Territory and carry our terrorist attacks on the civilians and the Army. One such major terrorist attack was on the Uri Camp of Indian Army in September 2016, martyring many Indian soldiers.

Indian Army decided to respond appropriately and carried out surgical strike in POK on 29th September 2016, by crossing over into the enemy territory and destroying many terrorist launch pads.

The option of surgical strike was resorted to in the wake of increase in infiltration attempts.

In this Surgical Strike, carried out by the Indian Army, 38 terrorists were annihilated and their camps destroyed.

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Indian Soldiers in Action during the Surgical Strike

Leaving aside reactive rhetoric, New India has shown that it can respond effectively to terrorism.

Military Strength, Political Will and Moral Character

The difference in New India, is

  • the manner in which it has gone ahead and carried out such Surgical Strikes and
  • the manner in which it has acted, post these Surgical Strikes.

All along from 1947, when Pakistan separated from India, it has been a well-known fact across the globe that Pakistan has been trying to instigate and cause disturbances in India.

Israel too has been facing similar situations from its neighbours from a similar period of time. Isreal is known for having carried out repeated surgical strikes to handle their issue, including the famous Operation Entebbe, a successful counter-terrorist and hostage-rescue mission carried out by commandos of the Israel Defence Forces (IDF) all the way, at Entebbe Airport in Uganda on 4 July 1976, when Uganda openly offered support to the hijackers of the Air France plane carrying 98 Jews and Israelis.

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Entebbe Strike

In Pakistan itself, when USA was sure of the hiding location of Osama Bin Laden in Abbottabad, they carried out a surgical strike as a war on terror.

Despite having a lot of proof, while India had the military capacity, India had refrained all along from launching Surgical Strikes near its borders.

With these 2 Surgical Strikes, India in a decisive and bold manner cleansed India’s North West and North East borders of frequent terror attacks that India has had to suffer for so long.

However, after carrying out the strike at PoK, India informed the Pakistani authorities through proper channel about the strike, before informing the world.

Likewise, in the case of the Myanmar strike, after the event, India took care to have a joint meeting with the Myanmar authorities.

Thus India demonstrated

  1. military strength and political will to carry out the strikes and
  2. character to follow due processes with the other nation, post the strike.

These highlight the strength of character which is becoming the hallmark of the emerging New India.

More on Surgical Strike, in our book, Knowing New India.

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Parakram Parv

We need to celebrate this day of Surgical Strike every year as Parakram Parv, to remind us of this successful valiant action of our soldiers, and support that the government of the day provided to their soldiers.

The youth should be encouraged to write articles, enact skits in schools, conduct special NCC and NSS programs in schools, create paintings of our soldiers, compose poems and so on to express solidarity with our soldiers.

That will be an apt way of showing our gratitude to our Army, who have always stood forth in protecting our territory.

Shailaputri – #Navadurga #Navaratri

During Navaratri, we invoke the divinities who are in Arupa state, to Rupa state, in the form of Shaila. This transformation of divinities into Rupa state, is represented by the form of Shailaputri.

Navaratri begins with the worship of Devi Shailaputri on its first night. Shaila means a mountain, a hill, a rock. This name is in reference to Devi’s incarnation as Parvati, the daughter of Himavana, the king of the Himalaya.

Parvat – Parvati

King Himavam is also known as Parvata Raja. Thus, since Devi in this form is the daughter of Parvata Raja, i.e. Parvata Kumari, she is known as Parvati.

Shiva chooses Kailash

On this earth, Shiva Tattva in His form as Shankara, has His Abode in the Himalayan range in Mount Kailash, Kailash Parvat.

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Kailash Parvat

As per the Puranic legends, Shiva in His Avirbhava form on this earth, Bhuloka chose the daughter of Parvata as His consort.

The name for Parvathi, His consort, comes from the word Parvath, meaning the great mountain.

Having chosen Her as His consort, Shiva made one of the main peaks in this Himalayan range, Kailash Parvat His abode on earth.

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Kailashnatha

Touching the Sky

Kailash etymologically means touching the sky.

Similarly the two other popular abodes of Shiva too are in the Himalayan ranges, Kedarnath and Amarnath, all of which are at high altitudes.

We speak about Kedarnath, and the calamity that struck the temple, in our article – “Himalayan Tsunami – Waiting to Happen. Happened – Why?”

More on this in our book, Understanding Shiva.

The Highest Peak of consciousness

The mountain symbolized the highest peak of consciousness. When you are situated in this highest state of Consciousness, the Divinity in you is awakened.

Shaila, Shila, Shilpi, Shilpa

Shaila also means a Rock. From this word, is derived the term Shila, meaning an idol. The word Shilpa, meaning decoration also has the same roots. Shilpi is the one who sculpts a Shila from a Shaila, and enhances the Shila through Shilpa Kala, the art of decoration.

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A Shilpi Sculpting a Shila from Shaila

The whole universe consists of the Shila of Devi, and She is also the Shilpi who has sculpted the whole cosmos out of Herself, and has performed Shilpa to it through the countless forms that She has created.

Very Indian

The names Shaila, Shila, Shilpa, Shailendra etc. have been part of the Indian tradition, from ancient times.

Sila Bhadra Maha Thera

Xuang Zang, also known as Hiuen Tsang, was a scholar from China, who visited India in 600 CE.

From Huien Tsang’s records, we learn that, when he came to Nalanda in 630 CE, there were 10000 resident students there from India, Sri Lanka, Tibet, China, Japan, Korea, Sumatra and Java. There were 1510 teachers and 1500 workers within the campus and the Chancellor then was Sila Bhadra Maha Thera, who was a foremost Buddhist scholar.

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Xuan Zang (Huien Tsang) and Silabhadra Maha Thera

More on this in our book, Brand Bharat – Vol-5.

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Form of Devi Shailaputri

In this Shaila form, Devi is shown as seated on a Vrshba, bull with a Trishul on one hand and a lotus on the other.

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Devi Shailaputri

Rishabha, Bull,Vahana

In the Indian concept, there is a practice of attributing a Vahana, Vehicle for the various divinities.

Thus Shiva, and Devi’s form as Shailaputri have a Bull as their Vahana.

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Rishabha

Bull, Pashu – Symbol of the Gross

A bull is known in Samskrt as Rishabha and it is a Pashu. The translation for Pashu is animal. But Pashu is an encompassing term that includes all living beings or bodily forms.

Going beyond gross

Brahman, the Divine Consciousness as a principle of the Universe can only be realized through subtler means and not in a physical or gross form.

Thus Pashu or bodily forms are a stumbling block in the way towards realizing Shiva. Only when one is willing to go beyond the bodily level of understanding and hones the subtler senses, can one understand and realize Divinity.

Rishabha –  natural body forms

The word Rishabha can also refer to natural bodily forms that can move. When the body and mind are in unison and tuned to the subtle natural rhythm of the Universe, the person is said to be in a peaceful and calm state, which is one’s natural self.

Nandi : Bharath Gyan Short Film : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9FSVsG5QHro&t=18s

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Trishul

The Trishul here represents the three Guna, Satva, Rajas and Tamas. When we go beyond the body level, then we transcend these three Guna.

Lotus

Then one lives like a lotus and is never drowned in the water of worldly existence.

A lotus grows out of the waters. It has got a long, flexible, winding stem which supports the flower to bloom just on the surface of the water.

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Lotus adjusting to water height

Whether the water rises up or goes down in height, the stem adjusts itself in such a way that the flower does not drown itself in the water and holds it just above the water level so that the lotus bud can receive the energies from the sun and blossom.

Lotus – The Flower of Life: Bharath Gyan Short Film:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pqaEoklhvbA

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More on Rishabha, Trishul and Lotus in our books and films, Understanding Shiva and Creation, and film, Wonders of Indian Astronomy.

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The form of Devi Shaliputri beautifully brings out these aspects.

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Dasamahavidya and Navadurga on the outside silver door of the Shaila Devi Temple at Amer Fort in Jaipur

 

Access the Complete Navaratri eBook: 

Click to access navaratri-ebook.pdf

World Heart Day

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Lohini, Loha, Haem, Haemoglobin

The blood is continuously circulated in our body by our heart, hrdayam. Blood is known by the name Raktha in Samskrt. Raktha means nourishment, desire, red and blood. Blood is also called lohini in Samskrt, for, it contains loha, iron. In the Greek language it is referred to as haem for iron. It is from the word “haem” that we get the word “haemoglobin”.

Heart – “Hrdayam

The very word “heart” traces its etymological roots to the Smskrt word “hrdayam”.

The word “hrdayam” itself is a technical word based on the functionality of the heart.

“Hrdayam”-Give, Take, Circulate

Harathi, means “to take” and from which is taken the syllable “Hr”.

Dadathi means “to give” from which is taken the syllable “da”. The word “Dhana”, meaning “donation”, comes from the same root.

Yathi, Yam means to circulate. The activity of circulation is called Yam.

When we join the syllables, Hr+ Da+ Yam, we get the technically coined word “Hrdayam”, which brings to us the functioning aspect of the heart.

‘Heart to donate blood’

But for the continuous circulation of blood in the body, life would come to a halt.

While the heart represents the aspect of circulation of blood in the body for the life to live, we need to have the heart in us to give dhana, to donate our blood and ‘circulate’ it among the needy in the society.

In other words, yathi, yam means “to circulate”, for which, “we get in return” harathi, satisfaction and heartful gratitude.

So, hrdayam, heart circulates the blood in our body to rejuvenate us. Those of us who have a heart, hrdayam need to donate, circulate blood and gain satisfaction, gratitude.

 A beautiful blend of hrdayam, both for oneself and the society at large!

With this thought in mind on this World Heart Day, let us donate blood as frequently as medically permitted, to give life, to rejuvenate our society.

Mahalaya Amavasya

Honouring Ancestors

Indians follow the practice of honouring their ancestors. Notable is the practice of setting aside a few days in a year as the period most auspicious for propitiating the ancestors.

Mahalaya Paksha

In India, this period is the fortnight called Mahalaya Paksha, which is the lunar, dark fortnight in September – October.

Mahalaya, Meaning

Mahalaya means the abode of the great souls. Mahan means great soul and alaya is abode, residence.

Sun and Moon Alignments

During Mahalaya Paksha, the Sun is aligned with the Libra zodiac, which means the Moon when full, lies aligned with the star in Aries Zodiac called Bharani in Indian astronomy.

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Mahalaya Amavasya: Fortnight from Full Moon

This star in Indian astronomy is associated with the Lord of Death, Yama. So, the fortnight starting from this Full Moon is observed as the time to pay respects to ancestors so that these prayers and offerings will reach the abode of Yama who can facilitate their reaching the souls of the ancestors.

World Tourism Day

India is a vast country with diverse terrain, from the Himalayas in the North to the Indian Ocean in the South, to the Thar Desert in the West to Arunachal in the East. The diverse landscape, seascape and snowscape make India a distinct Tourist destination.

India is also an ancient, continuously living civilization where there is no dearth of ancient temples, palaces and other structures built in an intricate and distinct style. These add to the beauty of the landscape and enhance its tourist appeal.

The land of India also abounds in Natural Wonders. From the majestic Himalayas in the North to the Seas in the South, India is a land filled with Natural Wonders.

The flora and fauna of this land are very distinct too and held as exotic by Indians and other civilizations as well.

The scope for Tourism in this country is thus diverse indeed.

However, tourism is not a newfound potential of India. India has not suddenly become a tourist destination because of the few monuments that are much touted in the Golden Triangle of Delhi-Agra-Jaipur.

Know More: WorldTourismDay e book:

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International day for the Total Elimination of Nuclear Weapons

A nuclear war looms large, as tensions grow between the major world powers. There is also the danger of the nuclear weapons falling in the hands of terrorists. Will third world war be a nuclear conflict? Do we even understand the adverse consequences that a nuclear war would bring? The fallout of the fallout!

International Day for Nuclear Disarmament

After a high-level meeting on nuclear disarmament on 26th September 2013, the UN General Assembly’s designated 26th September as the International Day for the Total Elimination of Nuclear Weapons. This Day provides an opportunity to highlight the need to eliminate nuclear weapons and the social and economic costs of perpetuating them.

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Logo of International Day for Nuclear Disarmament

Hiroshima and Nagasaki

The dropping of the atomic bomb on Nagasaki and Hiroshima during World War II, are the nuclear bomb drops, we have encountered in the modern world till date. Until then, descriptions of such bombs and their destruction were unheard of and would have been passed off as a figment of imagination.

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Atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Photos courtesy: US National Archives and Records Administration

Did the ancient world and India have the nuclear capability? Were there a nuclear wars in ancient time? Were nuclear arsenal used during the war?

The knowledge about any such war from ancient times will help understand the universal holocaust that a nuclear conflict could bring, and thereby make us more serious about disarmament of these destructive weapons.

Dr. Robert J. Oppenheimer and the Bhagavad Gita

Dr. Robert J. Oppenheimer, the nuclear physicist of America, responsible for the development of the first Atomic Bomb in the modern world, while witnessing the first nuclear test explosion in 1945, in New Mexico Desert quoted from the verse 11.32 of the Bhagavad Gita

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Dr. Robert J Oppenheimer

Photos courtesy US National Archives and Record Administration

“I am become death, destroyer of the worlds”.

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“The Supreme Lord said: I am death, the mighty destroyer of the world, out to

destroy. Even without your participation all the warriors standing arrayed in

the opposing armies shall cease to exist.”

(Bhagavad Gita – Chapter 11 verse 32)

The Upadesa. – Bhagavad Gita, got the Kurukshetra war of Mahabharata underway and this particular phrase which Dr. Oppenheimer quoted, speaks of the power to destroy.

Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer, director of the Manhattan Project, learned Sanskrit in 1933 and read the Bhagavad Gita in the original. He has cited it as one of the most influential books to shape his philosophy of life.

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Manhattan Trinity Project – The Explosive Gadget

Photo courtesy Los Alamos National Laboratories

The quoting of the Bhagavad Gita verse 11.32 by Dr. Oppenheimer does not seem to be a one off statement. There are pointers that make one wonder whether Dr. Oppenheimer was quoting the Gita at the moment of the first nuclear test explosion of the modern world, from a philosophical perspective or whether he was perhaps quoting it to imply some other connection or similarity.

Was he of the opinion that the Kurukshetra war of the Mahabharata, which brought forth the Bhagavad Gita, too had nuclear arsenal in it and was he aware of the same?

Dr. Oppenheimer conveys a plausible connection, when he articulates his view on the nuclear capability of an ancient civilization.

Shortly after the first nuclear test explosion, called the Manhattan Project, Dr. Oppenheimer, addressed the students of the Rochester University. Here one of the students asked him a pointed question, if his experiment was the first nuclear explosion of the world. He responded thoughtfully as “Well …. Yes, in modern times ofcourse …”.

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University of Rochester

This cautious, measured, response of Dr. Oppenheimer, which has been recorded for posterity, makes one wonder if Dr. Oppenheimer believed that in an earlier civilization, there could have been nuclear capability. By earlier quoting the Bhagavad Gita during the test explosion, was he perhaps pointing to the Indian civilization as having had that capability?

In Mahabharata

This thought is further substantiated by the Indian text Mahabharata and the adjunct text Purana, which give a vivid description of the Asthra or missiles and their capabilities.

The description of the special manner in which these Asthra were invoked, the number, colour, shape and the rapid speed of individual discharges from each Asthra, the extent of destruction they had caused and the awe in which they were held as compared to the regular bow and arrow, make them appear to be special weapons of mass destruction, beyond our comprehension today.

Were they based on nuclear technology or something even beyond?

It is to be noted from the account in the texts, that not everyone who took part in the war had the Asthra. The common soldier used only Shasthra. Very few persons seemed to have had Asthra.

Notable amongst them, on the Pandava side, Arjuna had such asthra and on the Kaurava side, Karna had them.

Both Arjuna and Karna are described in the text as level headed warriors with great will power, patience, tolerance and sagacity. They had obtained these asthra weapons, only after great penance and austerities.

Is there any ground proof of an atomic war in the past?

Ground Proof

All pointers so far, make us ponder if really a limited nuclear war was fought at the Kurukshetra battle. Many have commented for and against on this aspect.

But all studies seem to have halted at a superficial level, leaving this as a still unanswered question.

The maximum one is able to trace, is upto the work by two European researchers David Davenport and Ettore Vincenti, who seem to have done some ground work in and around MohenjoDaro. Not many details can be found of their work or its acceptance, but their findings seem to be very interesting and plausible, warranting further attention.

In one of their excavation sites, they claim to have found evidences that suggest that the ancient town may have been ruined by a powerful blast.

Ruined town

They found big stratums of clay and green glass crystallised, fused or melted at its identified epicentre and bricks around this epicentre were melted on one side, characteristic of an explosion.

It is obvious that not much ground research has been done to validate these statements of the Mahabharata text or that of these 2 research scholars.

There are over 2600 archaeological sites around the Kurukshetra region.

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Hardly a handful of them have been excavated and worked on by the Archaeological Survey of India.

Need to check for remnant signs

Just as Archaeo-Astronomy is bringing about a new revolution in history, we need a revolution in our ground Archaeology as well. The services of IAEA (Indian Atomic Energy Agency), the National Physical Laboratory and similar such research institutions with expertise in nuclear sciences and other intra disciplinary subjects, may also have to be enlisted to check for remnant signs of any nuclear explosion in the Kurukshetra war theatre area.

In parallel, if the texts are studied seriously, it can yield a wealth of information on the weaponry, army formations and other details of the Kurukshetra war to give us better insights into this war and the fallout of the war.

A short in the arm to disarm

If it does turn out to be a major war fought with all those advanced technologies, then it is indeed a wake up call for all of us, in this age of nuclear armaments to study and understand this war and draw lessons from it.

It will be a shot in the arm for the nuclear disarmament and global peace program. This is especially because the current generation seems to be slowly forgetting the long lasting impact and sufferings of the people post the bomb droppings at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, having not seen it firsthand.

More on this in our book, “Triple Eclipse”, which can be read online at www.bharathgyan.com

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Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar

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One of the key figures for Renaissance in Bengal was Ishwar Chandra. Due to his contribution as a thought Leader, he came to be known as Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar.

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Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar

Ishwar Charan Bandopadhyay was born on 26 September 1820 in Paschim, Mednapur, West Bengal. He grew up to be a philosopher, academician, reformer, and philanthropist and received the title Vidyasagar, from the Calcutta Samskrit College, from where he had graduated. Vidya stands for knowledge and Sagar for ocean. He was given the title Vidyasagar, ocean of knowledge, in recognition of his yeoman services to the field of education. He thus came to be called popularly as Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar.

He rationalized and simplified the Bengali alphabet script called abugida. It has been used since his times as the type set of the Bengal script.

Vidyasagar threw open the doors of Samskrit College in Calcutta for students from all castes. He took initiative to push through the Widow Remarriage Act of 1856.

An interesting incident happened in Bengal when Sri Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar and his few friends were busy collecting donations to start Calcutta University.

One day Vidyasagar stopped at the door of the palace of the Nawab of Ayodhya. The Nawab was not exactly known to be a generous person and many people tried to dissuade Vidyasagar from taking up this mission. Vidyasagar however met the Nawab and presented his cause. On hearing Vidyasagar’s plea, Nawab got up, pulled off one of his shoes and dropped it in Vidyasagar’s bag as donation.

Next day Vidyasagar organized an auction of the Nawab’s shoe in front of his palace. Many of Nawab’s knights, Jahagirdars, court members, who wanted to impress the Nawab started bidding. By mid-afternoon the shoe had been sold for Rs 1000. The Nawab, happy to hear that his shoe had fetched Rs 1000, matched the auction money. He added his own Rs.1000 as donation.

Ishwar Chandr rose above his personal feelings and ego when the shoe was dropped by the Nawab in his bag and exploited the situation creatively, converting it into the biggest donation for the university then.

The Vidyasagar Setu, second largest bridge across the Hoogly River in West Bengal, was named after this Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, in recognition of the thought leadership he had provided.

Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar was a social leader, who gave the modern script for the Bengali literature, worked for a casteless society and empowered the hapless women. He developed Calcutta University and gave impetus to usage of Samskrit as a scientific language. He was a true leader of his times. A Prajapathi.

Poona Pact

The Poona Pact was an agreement between Mahatma Gandhi and B R Ambedkar that was signed on September 24th, 1932 at Yerwada Central Jail in Pune.

In the 1932, the British decided to allow Self-Rule for native Indians under a constitution.

In order to frame a constitution, the British invited top Indian leaders. Leaders like Mahatma Gandhi, Ambedkar and Jawahar Lal Nehru attended the conferences organized by the British to draft the constitution.

At one of the conferences, there were differences between Gandhi and Ambedkar.

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The Second Conference where there were differences between Gandhi and Ambedkar

Ambedkar wanted separate electorate status for the ‘lower caste’ in the lines of those for Muslims and Christians.

Gandhiji was vehemently against such status as he felt this would disunite the Indians, particularly the Hindu community. He started an indefinite fast at Yerwada Central Jail from September 20th.

An agreement was reached between the two leaders on September 24th at Pune which has been termed the ‘Poona Pact’.

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India’s March to Mars

India’s Mars Orbiter Mission entered Mars Orbit on 24th September in the year 2014.

Mangal

Planet Mars is known as Mangala in Samskrt and Indian languages. Hence, the name Mangalyan for this mission, Ayana meaning “travel to”.

In Indian thought, Mars is referred to as Mangal, meaning “auspicious”.

Mars lies beyond earth from the sun at the center of the Solar System.

Mangalvar

Among the weekdays, Tuesday is referred to as Mangalvar in Samskrt, after the planet Mars. It is significant to note that the Mangalayan Mission was launched on Mangalvar, a Tuesday.

March Mars Connect

The month of March is connected with Mars and derives its name from the planet. The name March comes from the Latin word “Martius”, the first month of the Roman calendar. It was named after Mars.

The month Maritus was the beginning of the season for farming in Rome.  For, the sun on its northward journey brought warmth for agriculture to happen in Europe, after the harsh winter. It was the month of the festival in honour of Mars, the God of agriculture.

Mars – The Greek God of War

In Greek astronomy, Mars is referred to as “the planet of war”, “the God of war”, because of its red nature.

Greek God of War
Greek God of Wars

Roman God of Agriculture

In the Roman civilization, Mars was looked upon as a God of Agriculture. This has been brought forth in legends, paintings and coins.

Mars, The Roman God of agriculture

Other Names of Mars

The Iron Link

Planet Mangala is also referred to as Lohitang in Samskrt, meaning “that which is rich in iron deposits”, loha.

Blood in Ayurveda is also described as lohini, meaning “that which is rich in iron”.

Mars rich in iron deposits

In Greek legends too, blood is called “Haima” from which comes the word “Haemoglobin” which denotes the iron content in blood. Haem / Heme is the form of iron found in animal sources.

We thus see an intrinsic connect between Lohitang, Mars and Lohini, iron and blood, a connect that has been brought out in various legends and the practice of venerating Mars as the divinity for surgeries, wars and other such professions involving use of iron / steel equipment.

Mars is also known as Angaraka, meaning “that which is red in colour”.

Mars – The Red Planet

Son of Earth

In some context, it is referred to as Bhumi Putra, meaning “Son of Bhumi”. For this, there is a legend on how Mars took form from Earth and was nurtured and brought up by Bhumi, Mother Earth.

These terms are available in astronomical texts of the land.

The other Names of Mars

Names

Meaning

BhaumaMade of earth
AngarakaHeated Charcoal
DharaNisutaDhara =  dry

Nisuta = Laid out, thrown into, DharaNisuta = dried up surface

Kshitija
Earth born
Krura
Cruel
Dharāputra
Dhara = Dry, Putra = Son
LohitāngaRed powdered, Iron Dust
KonaCorner
Vakra
Curved, hostile
Kārtikeya
 
Ara
 

A Dry Planet

There are speculations and postulates in the scientific community that there was water once upon a time on Mars but that it has dried up. This tallies with the ancient Indian names for Mars which mean dried up surface.

Mars and Antares

The star Antares in the Scorpio constellation gets its name because it was called Anti Mars, the rival to Mars as from the earth, it visually looked similar to Mars in brightness and colour for ancient European astronomers. Whereas in Indian astronomy, Antares is called as Jyeshtha, the big brother, for, it is the largest star in our Milky Way Galaxy.

Antares in Scorpio Constellation by the side of Mars as it was transiting through Scorpio

Comparison – Similarity

Mangala in Music

Muthuswamy Dikshitar was one among the trinity of Carnatic musicians who formed the basis of the music system of this land.

Muthuswamy Dikshitar
Trinity of Carnatic Music

He lived about 200 years ago. Among his compositions, is the famous, “Navagraha Keerthana”. In this, he speaks of various qualities, characteristics, gunas of Mars. The lyrics are not from an astrological perspective, but are to be viewed from the perspective of the qualities that this planet exhibits.

Imagery of Mars

Vahana, Vehicle

The Vahana, vehicle of Mangala is Ram, the male goat. It is interesting to note that a similar Ram is shown for Aries, the first zodiac constellation. There is an Indian astronomical connect between Aries & Mars.

Vahana of Mangala, Mars – A Ram
Ram, a Zodiac symbol of Aries

 Ram, a Zodiac symbol of Aries

Shula and Trishula, Difference

The implement of Mangala is a Shula. Shula is something akin to a spear. When the same Shula has 3 pointed heads, it is called Trishula, the weapon of Shiva. In the case of Mangala, it is Shula, a spear.

Trishula and Shula

 

 Mangala’s Consort

In Indian legends when one is expressed as a consort, it is certainly not for a limited understanding of a wife, spouse. The term has certain qualities, characteristics that the notion of consort brings in.

In this case of Mangala, the consort is Jwalini, jwala meaning “fire”, and here as Jwalini, a female form of fire is brought forth.

Mangala with his consort Jwalini

“What this could mean astronomically is the case of Mars?” is something for us to dwell more into in our study of the scientific aspects that Mangala and Jwalini stand for.

Advantage

India launched Mangalyan to probe Mars physically.

As the world is preparing to march to Mars, we have the advantage of our ancients’ thoughts to probe into and leap frog into a deeper understanding of Mars and the skies.

India's March to Mars 1.jpg
India’s Mars Mission Mangalyaan  

Mangalyaan – Interesting Facts

India is the first country in the world to have succeeded on its first attempt. It took only 3 years to build the orbiter and send it on its mission.

10 times less than NASA

NASA spent Rs. 4500 crores, ISRO did it in just Rs. 450 crores.

Faster than NASA

When NASA took 5 years to reach Mars, ISRO took only 18 months to reach the Red Planet.

Trip to Mars costs less than our auto richshaw

Total travelling distance to Mars is 68 crore kilometers and the total cost is 454 crore rupees. That makes it Rs. 6.67, cost per km which is less than the average auto rickshaw charge per km in India.

Contribution of every Indian: 4 Rs

In real terms, this value, when distributed over the Indian population of 1.2 billion people, every Indian has contributed Rs.4 per towards this Mangalyaan mission.

Cheaper than bridge

The Mangalyaan mission cost India $73 million (~Rs.450 crores) which is even cheaper than an eight lane bridge in Mumbai which cost $340 million. Convert to Rupees!

Lighter than SUV sports utility

The Mangalyaan orbiter weighs 1,350-kg, which is even less than the weight of an SUV Sports Utility Vehicle.

Hearty congratulations to our ISRO Scientists for this great achievement!!

India's March to Mars 2
ISRO chief K Radhakrishnan with the model of Mangalyaan at Tirupati Temple
India's March to Mars 3.jpg
ISRO chief K Radhakrishnan after placing Mangalyaan model at the feet of Lord Balaji at Tirumala, Tirupathi – Faith in Divine, Relying on Science